He D2PTbvb9

where p is the mixture density.

The friction factor for laminar flow of a Bingham plastic can be expressed in terms of these parameters as

As noted previously, turbulent flows of non-Newtonians are often characterized by a roughly constant value of friction factor, in contrast with the large variations typical of laminar flow. An old way of estimating f for turbulent flow, proposed by Hedstrom (1952), is to use the Bingham viscosity hB in place of m in the relationship for Newtonian turbulent flow. This approach should be considered as only a rough approximation. A better method is to begin with, say, the smooth-wall Newtonian equation

Survival Treasure

Survival Treasure

This is a collection of 3 guides all about survival. Within this collection you find the following titles: Outdoor Survival Skills, Survival Basics and The Wilderness Survival Guide.

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