Apart from the petrochemical industry, there are few continuous-process plants with pumps as much in evidence and with reliability as essential as in the pulp and paper industry.

Before paper leaves the machine room, 100 to 200 tons of water will have been pumped to the mill for every ton of paper produced. These figures represent only the basic amount of water taken from a river and rejected as effluent; the amount of liquid circulated is several times greater.

Although many attempts have been made to utilize a dry process for papermaking, both pulping (the separating of crude fibers from the raw material) and papermaking (actual treatment of the fiber and mechanical formation of the sheet) still require water as the medium to convey fiber. Throughout the mill, pumps are used to transfer or circulate fibers suspended in water (stock), chemicals or solids in solution (liquors), or residues and waste matter as slurries, as well as to supply water for general services.

There are at least 150 pumps installed in a modern pulp mill and another 50 or so in a paper mill. About 1000 kW • h is required for the production of one ton of pulp, and a further 500kW • h for the finished paper. Of this total, about 25% is used in pumping. This means that even in a medium-size mill, the installed power required for pumps alone is approximately 10,000 hp (7457 kW), and often it is much higher.

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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