## For Centrifugal Pumps In Series

Pump limitations or system component requirements may determine that two or more pumps must be used in series. There are practical limitations as to the maximum head that can be developed in a single pump, even if multistaged. When pumping through several system components, there may be pressure limitations that prevent using a single pump to develop all of the head required at the beginning of the system. If several pumps are to be used in series, how should the total head be divided among them?

The sum of the total heads of the pumps must be equal to the required total system head at the design flow. Although mathematically any division of the total head among the pumps to be used is possible (at long as the sum of the pump heads is equal to the total system head), the actual pressure required at various locations along the system flow path determines how the pumping heads are to be divided. An energy or pressure gradient should be drawn for the system. The number of pumps, their locations, and their total heads should be selected to produce the desired pressures (or range of pressures) at critical locations along the system. In addition to considering the pressure loss through components to overcome resistance to flow, consideration should also be given to the minimum pressures required to prevent flashing in piping, cavitation at pump inlets, and so on, as well as the maximum working pressures for different parts of the system.

If preferred, the total system can be divided into subsystems, one for each pump (or group of pumps). The end of one subsystem and the beginning of another can be selected anywhere between pumps in series because the pump total head will be unaffected by the division line. Consequently, several system-head curves can be drawn for specification and purchasing purposesâ€”for example, primary condensate pump system, secondary condensate pump system, feed pump system, in a total power plant system.

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