Fi F2 F3 F4 F5

where F1

: correction factor for temperature. Friction loss calculations are normally based on a reference pulp temperature of 95°F (35°C). The flow resistance may be increased or decreased by 1 percent for each 1.8°F (1°C) below or above 95°F (35°C), respectively. This may be expressed as follows:

or or

F2 = correction factor for pipe roughness. This factor may vary due to manufacturing processes of the piping, surface roughness, age, etc. Typical values for PVC and stainless steel piping are listed below:

F2 = 1.25 for stainless steel piping

Please note that the previous values are typical values; experience and/or additional data may modify the factors. F3 = correction factor for pulp type. Typical values are listed below: F3 = 1.0 for pulps that have never been dried and reslurried F3 = 0.8 for pulps that have been dried and reslurried

Note: This factor has been incorporated in the numerical coefficient, K, for the pulps listed in Table II. When using Table II, F3 should not be used.

F4 = correction factor for beating. Data have shown that progressive beating causes, initially, a small decrease in friction loss, followed by a substantial increase. For a kraft pine pulp initially at 725 CSF and F4 = 1.0, beating caused the freeness to decrease to 636 CSF and F4 to decrease to 0.96. Progressive beating decreased the freeness to 300 CSF and increased F4 to 1.37 (see K values in Table II). Some engineering jugment may be required.

F5 = design safety factor. This is usually specified by company policy with consideration given to future requirements.

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Survival Treasure

This is a collection of 3 guides all about survival. Within this collection you find the following titles: Outdoor Survival Skills, Survival Basics and The Wilderness Survival Guide.

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