Evaluation Of Costs

The economical selection of a turbine considers the initial cost of the turbine and the operating costs. A lower-steam-rate (more efficient) turbine generally has a higher initial cost than a turbine with a higher steam rate. The operating costs are the cost of the steam for the number of years upon which the evaluation is to be based:

steam X steam X operating hours X numberb per year

Total cost = initial cost + I power X " X " X x -------- )

rate cost per year of years

The cost of installation—foundation, steam piping, and cooling water service (also electric service if required)—is not normally considered unless there are significant differences between the turbines: single-stage versus multistage, direct-connected versus turbine and gear, vertical turbine versus horizontal turbine with a right-angle gear, and so on.

The economical selection of a steam turbine versus an electric motor, diesel engine, gas engine, gas turbine, and so on, must include an evaluation of all installation costs, costs of

SPECIFIC VOLUME, m'/kf

SPECIFIC VOLUME, m'/kf

0 I 23456789

SPECIFIC VOLUME, FT3/LB

FIGURE 10 Nominal inlet flow capacity. Read inlet nozzle size required to pass maximum flow, based on 150-ft/s (45.7-m/s) steam velocity (lb/in2 X 6.895 = kPa; °Fsh X 0.555 = °Csh)

0 I 23456789

SPECIFIC VOLUME, FT3/LB

FIGURE 10 Nominal inlet flow capacity. Read inlet nozzle size required to pass maximum flow, based on 150-ft/s (45.7-m/s) steam velocity (lb/in2 X 6.895 = kPa; °Fsh X 0.555 = °Csh)

FIGURE 11 Nominal exhaust flow capacity. Noncondensing exhaust nozzles, based on 200-ft/s (61 m/s) steam velocity
FIGURE 12 High-speed centrifugal pump and single-stage steam turbine mounted on a common shaft. Package is designed for boiler feed in marine, industrial, and process steam plants (Flowserve Corporation).

supporting equipment (starters, switch gear, fuel-supply system, and so on), operating costs, and the initial costs of the various drivers being considered.

Survival Treasure

Survival Treasure

This is a collection of 3 guides all about survival. Within this collection you find the following titles: Outdoor Survival Skills, Survival Basics and The Wilderness Survival Guide.

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