Contaminated Fuel

The large amount of fuel an engine burns in operation and the widely varying service conditions worldwide virtually ensures that some contaminants will be introduced into the engine's fuel system. In addition to these operational contaminants, there will be built-in contaminants because of the complexity of the airframe and engine fuel system that will be experienced in the initial operation of the pumps. Tests are specified that define operation of the pump at various operating conditions on fuel containing both liquid and solid contaminants. These included salt water, quartz crystals, sand, and iron oxide ranging in particle sizes from 1500 microns to less than 5 microns. These tests are more severe for military applications than commercial applications. Military applications usually require the contamination to be metered into the inlet of the pump in relation to the fuel flow rate and then removed from the system downstream of the pump by a filtration system. Hence, the contaminant is passed through the pump in a continuous single pass manner. In all modern fuel systems, the high-pressure positive displacement stage is protected by the engine-mounted fuel filter element. The low-pressure boost stage is not protected by the engine-mounted filter element. Although the centrifugal boost stage is inherently capable of operating on the specified contaminant, special design features are employed to minimize the abrasive wear effects of swirling contaminated fuel.

Survival Treasure

Survival Treasure

This is a collection of 3 guides all about survival. Within this collection you find the following titles: Outdoor Survival Skills, Survival Basics and The Wilderness Survival Guide.

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