Classification Of Pumps

Pumps may be classified on the basis of the applications they serve, the materials from which they are constructed, the liquids they handle, and even their orientation in space. All such classifications, however, are limited in scope and tend to substantially overlap each other. A more basic system of classification, the one used in this handbook, first defines the principle by which energy is added to the fluid, goes on to identify the means by which this principle is implemented, and finally delineates specific geometries commonly employed. This system is therefore related to the pump itself and is unrelated to any consideration external to the pump or even to the materials from which it may be constructed.

Under this system, all pumps may be divided into two major categories: (1) dynamic, in which energy is continuously added to increase the fluid velocities within the machine

Classifications Centrifugal Pump
FIGURE 1 Classification of dynamic pumps

to values greater than those occurring at the discharge so subsequent velocity reduction within or beyond the pump produces a pressure increase, and (2) displacement, in which energy is periodically added by application of force to one or more movable boundaries of any desired number of enclosed, fluid-containing volumes, resulting in a direct increase in pressure up to the value required to move the fluid through valves or ports into the discharge line.

Dynamic pumps may be further subdivided into several varieties of centrifugal and other special-effect pumps. Figure 1 presents in outline form a summary of the significant classifications and subclassifications within this category.

Displacement pumps are essentially divided into reciprocating and rotary types, depending on the nature of movement of the pressure-producing members. Each of these major classifications may be further subdivided into several specific types of commercial importance, as indicated in Figure 2.

Definitions of the terms employed in Figures 1 and 2, where they are not self-evident, and illustrations and further information on classifications shown are contained in the appropriate sections of this book.

Classification Pumps
FIGURE 2 Classification of displacement pumps
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