## A

= area of orifice, in2

The principal disadvantage of orifice meters, compared with venturi meters and flow nozzles, is their greater loss of head. On the other hand, they are inexpensive and capable of producing accurate flow measurements.

It should be noted that the relationship of flow rate to head and dimensions of the metering section is identical for the venturi meter, flow nozzle, and orifice meter except that the coefficients of discharge vary.

Where it is impossible to employ one of the methods previously described, the pitot tube is often used. A pitot tube in its simplest form consists of a tube with a right-angle bend which, when partly immersed with the bent part under water and pointed directly into the flow, indicates flow velocity by the distance water rises in the vertical stem. The pitot tube makes use of the difference between the static and total pressures at a single point.

The height of rise h of the water column above the water surface, expressed in feet (meters) and tenths of feet (millimeters), equals the velocity head v2/2g. The velocity of flow v in feet (meters) per second may thus be determined from the relation v = 12gh.

In a more complete form known as the pitot static tube, the instrument consists of two separate, essentially parallel parts, one for indicating the sum of the pressure and velocity heads (total head) and the other for indicating only the pressure head. Manometers are commonly used to measure these heads, and the velocity head is obtained by subtracting the static head from the total head. A pressure transducer may be used instead of the manometer to measure the differential head. Oscillographic or digital recording of the electric signal from the transducer provides a continuous record of the changes in head.

The simple form of the pitot tube has little practical value for measuring discharges in open channels handling low-velocity flows because the distance the water in the manometer tube rises is difficult to measure. This limitation is overcome to a large extent by using a pressure transducer for the measurement and precise electronic equipment for the data readings.

The pitot static tube, on the other hand, works very well for this purpose if the tube is used with a differential manometer of the suction lift type (Figure 12). In this manometer, the two legs are joined at the top by a T that connects to a third line, in which a partial vacuum can be created. After the pitot tube has been bled to remove all air, water flows up through it into the manometer to the height desired for easy reading. Then the stopcock or clamp on the vacuum line is closed. The partial vacuum acts equally on the two legs and does not change the differential head. The velocity head h is then the difference between the total head reading and the static head reading. If desired, a pressure transducer can also be used for the head measurement.

Pitot tubes can be used to measure relatively high velocities in canals, and it is often possible to make satisfactory discharge measurements at drops, chutes, overfall crests, or other stations where the water flows rapidly and fairly large velocity heads occur. At low velocities, values of h become quite small. The pitot tube head error for a low velocity will lead to a much larger inaccuracy in discharge computation than the same error when the velocity is high. The velocity traverse with a pitot tube may be made in the same manner as with a current meter (discussed later).

head area meters The instruments used to measure flow in open conduits are normally classified as head area meters, the most common of which are weirs and flumes.

A weir is an overflow structure built across an open channel. Weirs are one of the oldest, simplest, and most reliable structures for measuring the flow of water in canals and ditches. These structures can be easily inspected, and any improper operations can be quickly detected and corrected.

The discharge rates are determined by measuring the vertical distance from the crest of the overflow portion of the weir to the water surface in the pool upstream from the crest and referring to computation tables that apply to the size and shape of the weir. For standard tables to apply, the weir must have a regular shape and definite dimensions and must be placed in a bulkhead and pool of adequate size so the system performs in a standard manner.

Weirs may be termed rectangular, trapezoidal, or triangular, depending upon the shape of the opening. In rectangular and trapezoidal weirs, the bottom edge of the opening is the crest and the side edges are called sides or weir ends (Figures 13 and 14). The sheet of water leaving the weir crest is called the nappe. In certain submerged conditions, the under-nappe airspace must be ventilated to maintain near-atmospheric pressure. The types of weirs most commonly used to measure water are

• Sharp-crested and sharp-sided Cipolletti weirs

• Sharp-crested contracted rectangular weirs

• Sharp-crested suppressed rectangular weirs

For measuring water flow, the type of weir used has characteristics that make it suitable for a particular operating condition. In general, for best accuracy, a rectangular suppressed weir or a 90° V-notch weir should be used.

The discharge in second-feet (cubic meters per second) over the crest of a contracted rectangular weir, a suppressed rectangular weir, or a Cipolletti weir is determined by the

Sides

## Survival Treasure

This is a collection of 3 guides all about survival. Within this collection you find the following titles: Outdoor Survival Skills, Survival Basics and The Wilderness Survival Guide.

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