In this case the laminar line would be scaled as before, but the transition to turbulent flow must be predicted from the parameters of the laminar-flow rheogram. It was found that all laminar points except the lowest one can be considered as obeying a Bingham formulation of the rheogram, with Ty = 0.0076 lb/in2 (52.7 Pa) and hB = 0.020 Pa • s. Substitution of these quantities into Eq. 14 yields VT = 17.7 ft/s (5.4 m/s) which is somewhat above the observed transition. The similar expression of D. G. Thomas (1963) gives VT of 13.4 ft/s (4.1 m/s), significantly below the observed transition point. The use of Eq. 13 to evaluate turbulent friction produces a turbulent line that passes through the transition point predicted by Eq. 14.

Survival Treasure

Survival Treasure

This is a collection of 3 guides all about survival. Within this collection you find the following titles: Outdoor Survival Skills, Survival Basics and The Wilderness Survival Guide.

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