y (in millimeters)

which expresses critical speed directly in revolutions per minute of the rotating shaft.

In practice, the critical speed should be placed well away from the operating speed of the shaft. Actual operating conditions, such as imbalance and clearance in bearings and couplings, tend to reduce the critical speed from its theoretical value. The designer has several options from which to choose to attain the desired critical speed: (1) vary the shaft diameter, (2) use tubular shafting to increase stiffness and reduce deflection, and (3) vary the bearing span.

Varying the diameter of the shaft has a dramatic effect on shaft deflection because the deflection decreases inversely with the cube of the diameter. The weight of the shaft will increase proportionately to the square of the diameter and may consequently impose excessive loads on hearings. When this is the case, tubular shafting may be substituted for solid shafting. The ratio 1/w is much higher for a tubular shaft than for a solid shaft of the same diameter, so the shaft deflection is again reduced and critical speed increased.

The bearing span may be varied when the size and weight of a single length is broken into sections, with a single engagement coupling used to connect each section and acting as a hinge joint. A self-aligning bearing is placed on each section immediately adjacent to the coupling. Each section may then be treated as an individual shaft, which will result in a substantial reduction in shaft size. The rigidity of the support at each hearing must be taken into consideration when calculating the critical speed of the shaft.

Dynamic Balance Drive systems that operate at high speeds and connect two widely separated shafts must be given special consideration with regard to dynamic imbalance. Care must be taken to ensure that the long, slender shaft used in such systems is not bent, either in manufacture or in installation. These systems quite often require shafting that has been dynamically balanced after manufacture to compensate for these normal errors.

End of Days Apocalypse

End of Days Apocalypse

This work on 2012 will attempt to note them allfrom the concepts andinvolvement by the authors of the Bible and its interpreters and theprophecies depicted in both the Hopi petroglyphs and the Mayan calendarto the prophetic uttering of such psychics, mediums, and prophets asNostradamus, Madame Blavatsky, Edgar Cayce, and Jean Dixon.

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