DKs tE

t = pipe wall thickness, in (mm) E = elastic modulus of pipe material, lb/in2 (kPa)

Pipe wall radial compliance can reduce the velocity of sound in liquid in a pipe as shown in Figure 2.2

The bulk modulus of water can be calculated with the following equation3 for temperatures from 0 to 212°F (0 to 100°C) and pressures from 0 to 4.4 X 104 lb/in2 (0 to 3 kbar*):

where Ks = isentropic bulk modulus, kbar K0 = constant from Table 1, kbar P = pressure, kbar (1 kbar = 105 kPa = 14,700 lb/in2)

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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