0305

If this equation is used to compute discharges through flumes ranging from 10 to 50 ft (3 to 15.7 m) wide, the computed discharges are always larger than actual discharges. Therefore, a more accurate equation was developed for the large flumes:

This difference in computed discharges obtained by using the two equations for an 8-ft (2.4-m) flume is normally less than 1%; however, the difference becomes greater as the flume size increases. Because of the difficulties in regularly using these equations, discharge tables have been prepared for use with flumes 1 to 50 ft (0.3 to 15.2 m) wide.

current meters The essential features of a conventional current meter are a wheel that rotates when immersed in flowing water and a device for determining the number of revolutions of the wheel. For open-channel flow measurement, a type generally used is the Price meter with five or six conical cups. The relationship between the velocity of the water and the number of revolutions of the wheel per unit time is determined experimentally for each instrument for various velocities. Also, the operator must have considerable skill to obtain consistent satisfactory results.

A detailed explanation of the use of current meters is contained in Chapter 5 of Reference 9.

other methods The discharge measurement methods previously given are the ones in common use; however, a number of other methods, some newer and more sophisticated, are well established. The use of these special methods is acceptable provided their limitations are recognized and all parties to the testing program are in agreement on their use. A few of these methods, not in any particular order, are salt velocity Deflection meters Radioisotope Color dilution

Salt dilution Propeller meters Gates and sluices Slope area

Color velocity Float movement Acoustic flowmeters field approximating Often a field approximation of water flow from a pump discharge becomes necessary, especially if no other methods are practical or readily available. one of the accepted methods is by trajectory. The discharge from the pipe may be either vertical or horizontal, the principal difficulty being in measuring the coordinates of the flowing stream accurately. The pipes must be flowing full, and the accuracy of this method varies from 85 to 100%. Figure 18 illustrates the approximation from a horizontal pipe. This method can be further simplified by measuring to the top of the flowing stream and

In USCS units

In SI units

FIGURE 18 Approximating flow from a horizontal pipe

always measuring so y equals 12 in (300 mm) and measuring the horizontal distance X in inches (millimeters), as illustrated in Figure 19.

Figure 20 illustrates a method of measuring discharge from a vertical pipe.

Head Measurements Head is the quantity used to express the energy content of a liquid per unit weight of the liquid referred to any arbitrary datum. In terms of foot-pounds of energy per pound of liquid, all head quantities have the dimensions of feet of liquid. The unit for measuring head is the foot (meter). The relation between a pressure expressed in pounds per square inch (kilopascals) and one expressed in feet (meters) of head is in USCS units Head, ft = lb/in2 X 2.31 * 62.3 = lb/in2 X 2.31

in SI units Head, m

where = specific weight (mass), lb/ft3 (kg/l) sp. gr. = specific gravity of the liquid

The following exerpt from the Hydraulic Institute Standard is used by the Bureau of Reclamation throughout its test program:

It is important that steady flow conditions exist at the point of instrument connection. For this reason, it is necessary that pressure or head measurement be taken on a section of pipe where the cross section is constant and straight. Five to ten diameters of straight pipe of unvarying cross section following any elbow or curved member, valve, or other obstruction, are necessary to insure steady flow conditions.

The following precautions should be taken in forming orifices for pressure-measuring instruments and for making connections. The orifice in the pipe should be flush with and normal to the wall of the water passage. The wall of the water passage should be smooth and of unvarying cross section. For a distance of at least 12 in (0.8 m) preceding the orifice, all tubercles and roughness should be removed with a file or emery cloth, if necessary. The orifice should be from 8 to 4 in (3-6 mm) in diameter and two diameters long.

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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