K = (1594/C)185 (L/d487)(l/0.446) C = Hazen-Williams coefficient of pipe friction

D = pipe length, ft; 105K values are for L = 1.0 ft and must be multiplied by true line length to determine line segmental K d = pipe diameter, in 1 in = 25.4 mn

Parallel and Series Operation The installation of multiple pumping units operating in parallel is common practice in the waterworks industry because, with proper design and regulation, it permits the most efficient use of pumping facilities and allows smooth transitions in pumping rates as demand fluctuates. This type of operation is particularly adaptable to pumpage from treatment facilities into a distribution system but is also applicable to raw water pumpage, which is generally required to match treated water pumpage. Special care must be taken in sizing the individual pumping units to ensure efficient operation and to prevent units from operating significantly above or below design rates during parallel operation. The principle upon which design must be based is that total station discharge may be determined by adding the individual pump discharges associated with any particular head. Obviously then, as additional pumps are placed in operation, the station flow will increase. However, because the system-head curve rises with

Survival Treasure

Survival Treasure

This is a collection of 3 guides all about survival. Within this collection you find the following titles: Outdoor Survival Skills, Survival Basics and The Wilderness Survival Guide.

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