In Chapter 5, this characteristic was applied to centrifugal compressors. The airplane wing analogy of stall was used, which is very directly applicable to the axial's airfoil-shaped blades. The incidence angle, described earlier, defines the onset of surge by stating that when the incidence exceeds the stall point, as developed from the cascade data, the foil ceases to produce a forward motion to the gas. When the gas cannot move forward, it moves in reverse, opposing the incoming flow. When the two collide, there is a noise, sometimes very loud. Recompression of the gas causes the temperature to rise very high very quickly. There have been cases where, when the blades were sufficiently strong not to break from the unsteady forces, they melted. It is more normal with prolonged surge to experience catastrophic blade breakage. The axial can also exhibit a phenomenon referred to as rotating stall. Rotating stall (propagating stall) is generally encountered when the axial compressor is started or operated too near the surge limit. This is especially true for compressor with adjustable vanes with the vanes in their extreme open or closed position. Vane movement is limited in some cases to minimize this problem. A flow perturbation causes one blade to reach a stalled condition before the other blades. This stalled blade does not produce a sufficient pressure rise to maintain the flow around it, and an effective flow blockage or a zone of reduced flow develops. This retarded flow diverts the flow around it so that the angle of attack increases or decreases on adjacent blades. These blades, with the increased angle of attack, stall and stay in a cell-like form. The cell then propagates around the stage or possibly two in which it occurs and at some fraction (40-75%) of rotor speed. Once begun, the cells continue to generate, causing inefficient performance, and if not terminated, may continue until a blade failure occurs. This is especially true if the cell's rotating speed coincides with the blade's natural frequency. Rotating stall is sometimes accompanied by audible pressure pulsation. Momentarily venting the compressor can inhibit cell formation. Besides the fact that the compressor tends to unload when taken to the maximum flow condition when starting, the additional problems are avoided.

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