Shaft End Seals

Restrictive Seals

In controlling gas leakage, shaft end seals are either restrictive or positive in nature. The labyrinth seal is one form of restrictive seal. The reasoning for the labyrinth end seal is generally the same as discussed in the interstage seal section. A procedure for the calculation of restrictive seal leakage is given in Appendix D.

Another common form of restrictive seal is the carbon ring seal (see Figure 5-49). This seal consists of a series of carbon rings, using either solid or segmented rings. The segmented rings are enclosed with a retaining spring, called a garter spring. This seal, while somewhat more complex, is easier to replace than its solid counterpart. The carbon ring seal is able to operate with a close clearance, closer than bearing clearances, because the rings can move radially and the carbon acts to self-lubricate

DRY CARBON RING SEAL

Figure 5-49. Dry carbon ring seal. The carbon rings on this seal are buffered by dry air. (Courtesy of Elliott Company)

DRY CARBON RING SEAL

Figure 5-49. Dry carbon ring seal. The carbon rings on this seal are buffered by dry air. (Courtesy of Elliott Company)

when the seal rubs. Because rubbing does take place from time to time, the carbon ring tends to need more frequent replacement than the labyrinth. But for equal axial length, the carbon ring seal can be designed for leakage an order of magnitude less.

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