References

1. API Standard 614, Lubrication, Shaft-Sealing, and Control Oil Systems for Special-Purpose Applications, Third Edition, Washington, D C. American Petroleum Institute, 1992.

2. API Standard 670, Vibration, Axial Position and Bearing Temperature Monitoring System, Third Edition, Washington, D.C.: American Petroleum Institute, 1993.

3. Gilstrap, Mark, 'Transducer Selection for Vibration Monitoring of Rotating Machinery," Sound and Vibration, Vol, 18, No. 2, February 1984, pp. 22-24.

4. Mitchell, John S., "How to Develop a Machinery Monitoring Program," Sound and Vibration, Vol. 18, No. 2, February 1984, pp. 14-20.

5. Brown, Royce N., "Control System for Centrifugal Gas Compressors," Chemical Engineering, February 17, 1964, pp. 135-138.

6. API Standard 671, Special-Purpose Couplings for Refinery Services, Second Edition, Washington, D.C.: American Petroleum Institute, 1990, Reaffirmed 1993.

7. Boylan, William, Marine Application of Dental Couplings, Paper 26— 1966, Society of Naval Architects & Marine Engineers, May 1966.

8. Bloch, Heinz P., Less Costly Turboequipment Uprates Through Optimized Coupling Selection, Proceedings of the 4th Annual Turbomachinery Symposium, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 1975, pp. 149-152.

9. API Standard 613, Special-Purpose Gear Units for Refinery Services, Fourth Edition, Washington, D.C.: American Petroleum Institute, 1995.

10. Brown, Royce N., An Experimental Investigation of a Pneumatic Closed Loop Anti-Surge Control for Centrifugal and Axial Flow Compressors Master's Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, 1966,

11. Bloch, Heinz P., "Use Keyless Couplings for Large Compressor Shafts," Hydrocarbon Processing, April 1976, pp. 181-1H6,

12. Feltman, P. L., Southcott, J. F., and Sweeney, J. M., Dry Gas Seal Retrofit, Proceedings of the 24th Turbomachinery Symposium, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 1995, pp. 221-229.

13. Schultheis, S. M. "Rider Band Wear Measurement in Reciprocating Compressors," Orbit, Vol. 16 No. 4, Bently, Nevada, December 1995, pp. 12-14.

14. API Standard 677, General-Purpose Gear Units for Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Service Industries, Second Edition, Washington, D.C.; American Petroleum institute, 1997.

Introduction

One of the basic problems with any machine is unwanted vibration. Because the machine has dynamic rotation, or rotation plus reciprocating action, vibration will be present primarily because of unbalance. In a reciprocating compressor, the unbalance can be controlled by design, if the number of cylinders can be selected and properly arranged relative to the process requirement. In the rotary compressors, including the dynamic types, the designer has more control, as these compressors have no inherent shaking forces. While unbalance is a major source of vibration in compressors, careful attention to the rotating element in the entire design and manufacturing cycle and proper field maintenance can solve many of the problems.

While unbalance may be the forcing function, resonances within the compressor are another factor in vibration. The resonances take almost insignificant exciting forces and magnify them to a level to cause problems. These resonances must be identified and somehow controlled. Tuning them out of the operating range is preferred. If this proves impractical, as a last resort, damping can be used to minimize the effect of resonance.

Other sources, such as compression temperature rise, driver-induced vibration, or component problems (bows) can contribute to the machine shaking. These must be treated as they occur. As a minimum, care musr be used to understand the nature of the sources to keep them from inter acting with the resonant frequencies of the compressor. The best remedy is to stop the excitation at the source. If this is not possible, selective tuning and proper application of damping must be used.

If the vibrations are left unchecked, damage to the compressor will occur, such as premature failure of bearings and seals, or packing rubs, and, in extreme cases, major component fatigue and failure. Secondary effects may result from the shaking forces being transmitted through the frame to the foundation. Damage may result to the foundation, particularly with reciprocating compressors. Interaction with other equipment in the area is also a concern. If there are people working in the area of a shaking compressor, there may be motion sickness or other physiological effects. Because of the potential for damage or problems, a basic understanding of the nature of, and possible remedies to, the more common vibrations is necessary.

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