Cylinders for compressors used in the process industries are separable from the frame. They are attached to the frame by way of an intermediate part known as the distance piece and can be seen in Figure 3-3. Piloting is provided to maintain alignment of all moving elements. A requirement of API 618 is for the cylinders to be equipped with replaceable liners. The purpose of the liner is to provide a renewable surface to the wearing portion of the cylinder. This saves the cost of replacing a complete cylinder once the bore has been worn or scored. In the larger, more complex compressors, this feature is standard or readily available as an option. On the smaller frames, particularly the single-stage models, the smaller cylinder size is such that the replaceable liner is not economical and may not be available.

All cylinders are equipped for cooling, usually by means of a water jacket. Those not having a water jacket are finned to provide air cooling. The latter method is limited to either small or special purpose machines,

The most common material used in cylinder construction is cast iron for the larger, low-pressure cylinders and steel for the smaller, high pres sure cylinders. In some cases, nodular or ductile iron can be used in lieu of cast iron. For hydrocarbon service, steel is most desirable, although not universally available.

Larger cylinders normally have enough space for clearance pockets. An additional location is the head casting on the outboard end of the cylinder. Figure 3-7 is an illustration of a cylinder with an unloading pocket in the head. On smaller cylinders, this feature must be provided external to the cylinder.

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