Most casings on both flooded and dry compressors are cast, normally of grey cast iron. API 619 [5] limits the use of cast iron by specifying steel for services in excess of 400 psig, discharge temperatures in excess of 500°F, and for flammable or toxic gases. While rare, austenitic and high nickel casings have been furnished. On dry compressors, the casing

Figure 4-13. A rotor set for an oil-free helical-lobe compressor. (Courtesy ofA-C Compressor Corporator!)

normally includes a water jacket. While referred to as a cooling jacket, the cooling water or alternative fluid is used as a heat sink or casing stabilizer to help control distortions and clearance changes. While castings are used for the iron casings, steel casings may be fabricated or cast and fabricated. Nozzle connections and allowable forces and moments are specified by the API standard, using the NEMA steam turbine equations for the force and moment basis. Most casings are vertically split, using end closures and withdrawing the rotors axially for maintenance. On the larger dry machines, the casing is horizontally split, to facilitate the removal of (he heavier rotors.

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