South Mangyshlak Basin

The South Mangyshlak Basin is located in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan Republics. The basin is an elongated depression situated to the north of Kara-Bogaz Arch and to the east of Caspian Sea (Figure 7-49). It is approximately 300 km long in an east-west direction and 150 km 22 wide. It covers area of 35,000 km (13,500 mi ). The South Mangyshlak Basin is bordered to the north by a zone of faulted anticlines characterized by a shallow Permo-Triassic basement. The basin is filled with up to 9,000 m of...

Entropy As Criterion Of Heterogeneity Of Rocks

A study of geologic bodies, from the viewpoint of their heterogeneity, may be carried out with an aid of the theory of information. Any communication is a sum-total of information on some real system. In geologic terminology, this may be reports on the various analyses of rocks, oils, gases, or natural waters, which are being received for processing in the laboratory. Any one of these communications describes the extent or level of knowledge of some geologic body treated as a system. There...

Mathematical Simulation Of Sediment Compaction

Post-sedimentational changes (during the diagenetic and epigenetic stages) of sediments depend on a great number of natural processes (including compaction) which result in the transformation of sediments into rocks. The diagenetic stage of rock transformations includes all physical, chemical and biochemical processes modifying sediments between deposition and lithification at low temperatures and pressures characteristic of surface and near-surface environments. In general, diagenesis is...

Natural Gas Properties

In the Productive Series of the Apsheron Peninsula and Archipelago, the crude oil is accompanied by natural gas (mainly hydrocarbons), either dissolved, forming gas caps, or accumulating in the form of independent gas or gas-condensate pools (sometimes in secondary traps above). The discovery in 1961-1962 of large gas and gas-condensate accumulations in the Dzhanub Prospect has considerably increased the gas potential of this region. The northwestern group of fields of the Apsheron Archipelago,...

Bulla Deniz Gas Condensate Oil Field

The Bulla Deniz structure is located within the northern portion of the Baku Archipelago, southeast of the large Sangachal-Duvanny Deniz-Khara Zyrya Oil Field (see Figure 6-3). Geological exploration of the structure began in the 1930's when the geophysical surveys were conducted at the Baku Archipelago. Pendulum gravimetry, regular gravimetry, and electrical surveys, however, did not discover the Bulla Deniz structure. Offshore seismic survey conducted in 1951 along several profiles identified...

Caspian Sea Region

The Caspian Sea is a highly promising oil- and gas-bearing region because oil and gas provinces situated on the territory of Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, and Kazakhstan expand to the Caspian Sea area (Figure 6-1). The Caspian Sea is the world's largest salt lake. Its length from north to south is 1,174 km, average width is 326 km, and total area is 375,000 km . Water depth in the middle of the Caspian Sea ranges up to 788 m and in the southern part, up to 1,025 m. It has no outlet, and...

Statistical Approach

The statistical approach, based on the empirical data, is simpler than the analytical one and still sufficiently justified from the viewpoint of lithosphere evolution. It is based on the inference of interconnections through generalization, analysis, and comparison of the structural-functional features of geologic systems at certain discrete moments of the geologic time. Approximation of the discrete (discontinuous) data by a continuous function obtains an empirical equation for a parameter (or...

Bakhar Oil and Gas Condensate Field

Bakhar structure was discovered in 1956-1957 by using seismic and electrical offshore surveys. There were numerous indications of high potential of the Bakhar prospect (located near the Makarov Bank mud volcano) (1) an intermittent mud volcano spewing sand and sandstone of the Productive Series (2) location of the prospect on the southern offshore continuation of the Fatmai-Gum Adasi anticlinal trend and (3) discovery in the Lower and Upper Productive Series of the Gum Adasi anticline of large...

Sangachal Duvanny Deniz Khara Zyrya Oil Field

Sangachal-Duvanny Deniz-Khara Zyrya Oil Field is located on the southeastern, offshore plunge of Utalgi-Kyanizadag anticlinal trend, and was discovered in May 1963, when 250 tons of oil per day flowed from Well 24 from Unit VII. Geological study of Baku Archipelago area began in the 1930s when the area was studied using geophysical surveys. Seismic surveys were conducted from 1951 to 1955, and individual uplifts were delineated. Further exploration was carried out in stages the first stage Unit...

Saatly Super Deep Well Sd1

The Saatly Super Deep well SD-1, with a proposed depth of 15,000 m 49,212 ft, was located within the Middle Kura Intermontane Depression (Kura Lowland), where the Kura and Araks rivers converge and the Mil and Mugan steppes join (Figure 1-5). It is a region of warm semi-desert and dry steppes with an arid climate. The average annual temperature is +10 C. Annual precipitation does not exceed 200-300 mm. From December 1971 to August 1974, a preliminary well was drilled to 6,240 m 20,472 ft. The...

Rf Fs

Variation in heavy-mineral content (solid curved lines) depending on the composition of rocks (quartz, Q feldspar, FS rock fragments, RF). a ore minerals, b stable minerals, c kyanite (disthene) group, d micas. studied. Their content is at a maximum in monomineralic quartz sandstones (3.8 ) and a minimum in lithite (0.2 ). The relationship of reservoir-rock properties (clay content, porosity and permeability) to mineral composition of rocks is shown in Figure 7-10. Petrographic and...

Mathematical Model of Electrical Resistivity of Sedimentary Rocks

For a homogenous, isotropic medium with resistivity R, changes of overburden pressure dpe, changes of pore (reservoir) pressure dpi, and changes of temperature dT, will result in the changes of electrical resistivity of rocks as follows dR (dR dpe)dpe + (dR dpi)dpi + (dR dT)dT (116) Predicted Reservoir-Rock Properties of Different Suites of the Productive Series in Offshore Areas Predicted Reservoir-Rock Properties of Different Suites of the Productive Series in Offshore Areas Other...

Amu Darya Basin

Amu-Darya province is located in the central and eastern parts of Turkmenistan and western part of Uzbekistan. It covers 360,000 km (138,800 mi ) (Figure 7-37). The province extends into Afghanistan for an additional area of approximately 45,000 km (17,350 mi ). Petroleum exploration in the Amu-Darya area started in 1929 (Clarke, 1988 Maksimov, 1987 Meyerhoff, 1982), whereas the first structural boreholes were drilled in 1936. The first commercial field (Setalantepe Field) found in this area in...

Palchygh Pilpilasi Oil Field

Palchygh Pilpilasi (meaning Mud Volcano in Azery language) Oil Field is located in the Caspian Sea east of Baku and southeast of Pirallaghi Adasi (see Figure 6-3). The main base for exploration and development is at Neft Dashlary Field, 4 km southeast. Seismic surveys conducted during 1953-1957 outlined the structure between Chalov Adasi and Neft Dashlary and discovered another anticline Palchygh Pilpilasi (Samedov et al., 1960). Later, in 19631965, one more uplift, named Azi Aslanov, was...

Regional Distribution of Oil and

Azerbaijan is one of the oldest oil- and gas-producing provinces not only in the former Soviet Union but in the world. Oil and gas have been produced commercially for more than 150 years. Occurrences in Azerbaijan have been studied by numerous scientists, petroleum geologists, geophysicists and engineers Gubkin (1937), Mirchink (1939), Abramovich (1948), Potapov (1954), Khain (1954), Krems (1954), Akhmedov (1957), Putkaradze (1958), Melik-Pashayev (1959), Samedov (1959), Babazadeh (1960),...

Dzhanub Gas Field

The Dzhanub structure is the southeastern culmination of the axis of the Darvin Bank Pirallaghi Adasi Gyurgyan Deniz anticlinal trend (see Figure 6-3), and is the southernmost explored structure of this trend. Dzhanub Gas Field was discovered by seismic survey between 1945 and 1959 (with interruption). Based on the seismic data, the structure is a gentle, terrace-like salient on the far plunge of the Chalov Adasi southwestern flank. The Dzhanub (meaning Southern in Azeri language) structure was...

Compaction of Carbonate Rocks

There are a number of major differences between the compaction of terrigenous and carbonate rocks, with the early lithification of carbonates. Most researchers (Proshlyakov, 1974 Pavlova, 1975 Bagrintseva, 1977 Chilingarian et al., 1979 and Chilingarian et al., 1995) consider the changes in the carbonate rock properties, including those due to burial, to be caused by different physicochemical processes occurring in the pore space of sediments and rocks. In this case, influence of gravitational...

South Caspian Basin

The onshore Turkmenistan portion of the South Caspian Basin includes the Cheleken Peninsula and coastal areas to the north and south. The offshore region includes the eastern portion of Apsheron-Pre-Balkhan anticlinal trend and the Chikishlyar-Okarem zone Turkmenian structural terrace see Figure 6-2 . Oil seeps and dozens of mud volcanoes are found in Turkmenistan Figure 7-31 . At least two giant fields have been found in the Turkmenistan portion of the South Caspian Basin Cheleken and...

Region I Apsheron Peninsula

Oil- and gas-bearing zones in the Apsheron Peninsula are mainly of Middle Pliocene Productive Series , Upper Pliocene Apsheronian Stage , and Miocene Diatom Suite, Chokrak Formation ages. The main oil- and gas-bearing and productive interval here is the Productive Series, which is subdivided into two divisions. The Upper Productive Series i.e., the upper division includes the following suites from top to bottom Surakhany, Sabunchi, Balakhany, and Pereryv the first break in deposition . The...

Theoretical and Empirical Equations Relating Porosity Permeability and Surface Area

In a reservoir modeled by a bundle of capillary tubes, the rate of flow q is given by the Hagen-Poiseuille equation where q is the volumetric flowrate, cm sec N is the number of capillaries rc is the capillary radius, cm Ap is the differential pressure across the capillaries, dyne cm2 is the fluid viscosity, poises, and Lc is the length of capillaries, cm. The Darcy equation for rate of flow q is where q is the volumetric rate of flow, cm sec k is the permeability, darcys A is the total...

Azerbaijan Portion the Apsheron PreBalkhan Trend

The situation changed following the discovery of the Gyuneshli Oil Field when the Kaspmorneftegazprom Production Association obtained modern floating deep-water drilling rigs. Subsequently, detailed CDP surveys were conducted on the structures discovered in the region, and the Azeri and Chyragh structures were delineated. Most of the large structures, however, were studied only by the wide-spaced seismic surveys, and the broad band of offshore area immediately adjacent to the Neft Dashlary...

Environments of Deposition

One of the most important aspects in reservoir characterization is an understanding of depositional environments in the area under study. Depositional environments and facies relationships, diagenesis and catagenesis strongly affect the size, shape, pore-space geometry, porosity, permeability, and location of clastic deposits. The main oil- and gas-bearing region in Azerbaijan and the South Caspian Basin is the western portion of Apsheron-Pre-Balkhan anticlinal trend Figure 7-1 and the main...

Modeling Of Sedimentary Sequences Based On Welllogging Data

For the purpose of classification and detailed correlation of the stratigraphic sections in the oil and gas fields of the South Caspian Basin it was found expedient to subdivide and model the section as a stratigraphic sequence of different lithologic units Buryakovsky and Dzhafarov, 1984a . Lithologically, the Productive Series represents a rather monotonous succession of sands, silts and shales, with the sand-silt to shale ratio of about 1 1. The thickness of the Productive Series offshore...

Lithostratigraphic Framework

Past environmental conditions and the lithology within the g osynclinal regions are responsible for physical and chemical properties of sedimentary rocks. Post-depositional alteration diagenetic and epigenetic of sediments is dependent upon a great number of factors. Discovery of commercial oil and gas accumulations, and reserve evaluation, require the investigation of both reservoir and caprock properties. This is especially important for young sedimentary basins, which are characterized by...