Family Bunker Plans

Family Bunker Plans

This ebook from John Hartman, ex-military gives you all of the practical tools that you need to build a bunker for you and your family to protect them from terrorist attacks and dangerous attacks on the United States. Would you not say that you are willing to protect your family no matter what? Then this bunker should be an excellent investment. This guide teaches you how to keep your family safe in the following ways: you will be able living in your bunker for 6 months, you will learn to build a source of renewable power, and fit up to 5 people comfortably. You will learn to build a bunker that is secretive and hidden, and impossible to break into. Your bunker will be plenty solid, in order to resist dangerous terrorist attacks. Learn to protect your family in the best way possible with this guide Start building your bunker and save your family! Read more...

Family Bunker Plans Summary


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Author: John Hartman
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Highly Recommended

I usually find books written on this category hard to understand and full of jargon. But the author was capable of presenting advanced techniques in an extremely easy to understand language.

This ebook served its purpose to the maximum level. I am glad that I purchased it. If you are interested in this field, this is a must have.

Bunker quality testing

Onboard test kits are available to allow ship's staff to carry out a range of tests during or after bunkering or during storage (if fuel stratification is suspected), for checking purifier or clarifier efficiency, for determining the cause of excessive sludging at the separators, if water ingress into the fuel is suspected, or when transferring bunkers to a new tank. The most comprehensive kits can detect catalytic fines and the presence of microbes, and test comparative viscosity, compatibility stability, density, insolubles content, pour point, salt water, sludge or wax, and water content. Fuel testing services such as those offered worldwide by specialist divisions of Lloyd's Register, Det Norske Veritas and the American Bureau of Shipping offer a swift analysis and advice on the handling and use of bunkers based on samples supplied. Under ISO 8217, even Any ship operator doubting the need to test bunkers should be reminded that some 3-5 per cent of stems are critically off-spec....

Earthmounded Concrete Bunkers

Earth-mounded concrete bunkers (EMCB), a combination of trenches and vaults, are being strongly considered by many of the new state disposal sites mandated by Congress. EMCB disposal technology involves isolating low-level radioactive waste in an engineered vault located above or below the natural grade of the site. A multilayer, engineered earthen cover is positioned over the vault to provide an additional barrier. Depending on the design, Class A, B, or C wastes can be stored in these structures.


The loading of fuel oil into a ship's tanks from a shoreside installation or bunker barge takes place about once a trip. The penalties for oil spills are large, the damage to the environment is considerable, and the ship Bunkering is traditionally the fourth engineer's job. He will usually be assisted by at least one other engineer and one or more ratings. Most ships will have a set procedure which is to be followed or some form of general instructions which might include 3. Sawdust should be available at the bunkering station and various positions around the deck. 4. All fuel tank valves should be carefully checked before bunkering commences. The personnel involved should be quite familiar with the piping systems, tank valves, spill tanks and all tank-sounding equipment. 8. A complete set of all tank soundings must be obtained before bunkering commences. 9. A suitable means of communication must be set up between the ship and the bunkering installation before bunkering commences.

Exhaust gas recirculation

EGR is a very efficient method of reducing NOx emissions (by 5060 per cent) without affecting the power output of the engine but is considered more practical for engines burning cleaner bunkers such as low sulphur and low ash fuels, alcohol and gas. Engines operating on high sulphur fuel might invite corrosion of turbochargers, intercoolers and scavenging pipes.

624 Tall Hoppers for Pressurizing

Where Ap is the pressure required to overcome the difference between, for example, the pressure in the gasifier and the atmospheric pressure. The bulk density of the coal is p, the height of the column filling the tall bunker is h, the average vertical velocity of the gas in the interstices is v, the dynamic viscosity of the gas n, the specific surface area of the pulverized coal is S, and the porosity of the coal gas mixture in the column is e. The 5 is an empirical constant. Taking SI units and the bulk density of coal as 1000 kg m3, the minimum height of the bunker to overcome a pressure difference of 10 bar ( 106 Pascal) is 100 m. Taking h 100 m, n as 1.5 x 10-6 kg s.m, S as 40000 m2 m3, and e as 0.4, this results in vcoal 0.13m s. This means that for a 2000t d 0.023 m3 s coal gasifier, the bunker should have an internal cross-section of 0.023 0.13 0.18m2, that is, 500mm diameter. The calculation shows that such bunkers are very thin and could advantageously be located near, or...

52 Mass transfer field on the tip

As the clearance is increased to t C 6.9 through intermediate values of clearance level, an area of low mass transfer is apparent on the thickest part of the blade, near the leading edge. Figure 5.4 shows that the area of low mass transfer increases as the clearance increases. This corresponds to the 'sweet spot' observed by Bunker et al. (2000) for a clearance of 2.3mm with a blade axial chord of 12.45cm compared to 13mm in this study. This feature is essentially the result of low shear stress caused by reduced leakage at this location, as borne out by the flow visualization. Also observed at the two largest clearances is a region of high mass transfer on the suction side near the leading edge, caused by the flow entering directly from the suction side of the blade, then undergoing separation and reattachment.

Fuels and lubes chemistry and treatment

Fuel remains one of the highest single cost factors in running a ship and also the source of the most potent operating problems. The reason for this is that new refining techniques, introduced as a result of political developments in the Middle East in 1973 74, have meant that fluid catalytic cracking and vis breaking have produced a more concentrated residual fuel of very poor quality. This residual fuel is the heavy fuel oil traditionally supplied to ships as bunkers and used in the majority of motor ships of a reasonable size for the main engine. Despite the high cost of these poor quality residual fuels owners generally have no alternative but to burn them, though some still prefer to use even more expensive intermediate grades produced as a result of mixing residual fuel oil with distillate.

Black sludge formation

Most heavy fuel oils supplied today emerge from cracking installations. The cracked asphaltenes, an inherent part of such bunkers, do not dissolve in engine lubricants but instead coagulate and form floating asphalt particles, two to five microns in size. These particles are very sticky and form black deposits on all metal surfaces of the engine, including the cambox and the crankcase. The admixture of residual fuels and some lubricants may lead to coagulation of asphaltenic particles causing sludge formation in engines, clogging the oil scraper ring and increasing piston ring groove deposits. Sludge may overload the lube oil separators and the filters may become clogged.

Particle Size Abrasiveness and Other Physical Characteristics

When MSW is removed from one side of a storage bunker at an MSW combustion facility, the waste on the other side generally does not fall into the vacated space. This characteristic allows the side on which trucks dump waste be kept relatively empty during the hours when the facility receives waste.

Medium speed auxiliary diesel engines

Over recent years, many owners have elected to burn low grade residual fuels in medium-speed auxiliary engines, sometimes with disastrous results. Fuels bunkered for slow-speed main engines may be of too poor a quality for use in auxiliaries even where the engines have been designed for heavy fuel operation. Major problems have been experienced on large slow-speed engines with some of the poor quality bunkers such as those containing catalytic fines. Fuel should conform to the specification given in the instruction book for the engine.

Fuel handling and treatment

Vacuum distillation, a second process, removes more of the lighter fractions, to leave an even heavier residue. As can be seen from Figure 2.10, the refinery-can have additional conversion equipment. Vis-breaking or thermal cracking is one process using heat and pressure to split heavy molecules into lighter components giving a very dense residue. Catalytic cracking is a process that uses a powdered silica-alumina based catalyst with heating, to obtain lighter fractions, with, however, an increasingly heavy residue. In the latter process catalyst powder is continuously circulated through the reactor then to a regenerator where carbon picked up during the conversion reaction is burnt off. Unfortunately, some of the catalyst powder can remain in the residue which may be used for blending bunker fuel oils. The very abrasive silica-alumina catalytic fines have caused severe engine wear when not-detected and removed by slow purification in the ship's fuel treatment system.

Naval Architecture

Cargo ships may carry materials which would damage the environment if released by accident. The consequences of large oil spillages are reported all too often. Other chemicals may pose an even greater threat. The bunker fuel in ships is a hazard and, in the case of ferries, the lorries on board may carry dangerous loads. Clearly those who design, construct and operate ships have a great responsibility to the community at large. If they fail to live up to the standards expected of them they are likely to be called to account1.

Dry Cargo Ships

Originally the machinery position was amidships with paddle wheel propulsion. Also with coal being burnt as the propulsive fuel, bunkers were then favourably placed amidships for trim purposes. With the use of oil fuel this problem was more or less overcome, and with screw propulsion there are definite advantages in having the machinery aft. Taking the machinery right aft can produce an excessive trim by the stern in the light condition and the vessel is then provided with deep tanks forward. This may lead to a large bending moment in the ballast condition, and a compromise is often reached by placing the machinery three-quarters aft. That is, there are say

Water in the fuel

Water can normally be removed from the bunkers by proper operation of separators and properly designed settling and daily service tanks. However, where the specific gravity of the fuel is the same or greater than the water, removal of the water is difficult or indeed not possible and for this reason the maximum specific gravity of fuel supplied for ship's bunkers has generally been set at 0.99.


2 A ship leaves port upright with a full cargo of timber, and with timber on deck. During the voyage, bunkers, stores and fresh water are consumed evenly from each side. If the ship arrives at her destination with a list, explain the probable cause of the list and how this should be remedied.

Fuel testing

Bunkers are classified as Gas Oil, Light and Marine Diesel Oil, Intermediate Fuel Oil and Marine or Bunker (C) Fuel Oil. The delivery note specifies the type of fuel, amount, viscosity, specific gravity, flash point and water content. Trouble frequently results from inferior fuels and there can be insuffient information to give warning. Fuel grading schemes and more detailed delivery notes are being used. Some of the Classification Societies and specialist firms provide testing services and on-board testing equipment is available. A representative sample is needed to give an accurate test result and this is difficult to obtain unless a properly situated test cock is fitted in the bunker manifold where flow is turbulent. The sample is taken after flushing the test cock. Because of the variation in heavy fuel, small quantities are taken into the test container over the period of bunkering, to give a representative sample.

Testing Tanks

Clean water ballast tanks are tested in the same manner as the cargo tanks, but bunkers and deep tank test requirements are similar to those in dry cargo ships, i.e. a head of water 2.45 m above the crown of the tank is applied. Any bulkhead not forming a tank boundary is hose tested.

Gas turbines

Gas turbines have dominated warship propulsion for many years but their potential remains to be fully realized in the commercial shipping sector. Breakthroughs in containerships, a small gas carrier and the Baltic ferry Finnjet during the 1970s promised a deeper penetration that was thwarted by the rise in bunker prices and the success of diesel engine designers in raising specific power outputs and enhancing heavy fuel burning capability.


This new bunker-busting weapon was developed (and successfully used) for Operation Desert Storm, dropped by F-111s. GBU-28s were also used in Kosovo, dropped by F-15Es. The GBU-28 is a 4,700-lb (2,131.92-kg) weapon. The warhead used is the BLU-113 AB blast fragmentation.

Low sulphur fuels

Environmental concerns over damage to ecosystems resulting from sulphur emissions (see the chapter on Emissions) have stimulated the creation of SOx Emission Control Areas (SECAs). An IMO framework proposed a global fuel sulphur content cap of 4.5 per cent and a 1.5 per cent sulphur limit in certain SECAs, the latter posing commercial and technical challenges for marine fuel producers, bunker suppliers, ship operators and machinery designers. Fuel must be tested on bunkering to ensure that it meets sulphur content limits. Shipowners must ensure that operation teams and bunker buyers are aware of the fleet's needs for low sulphur fuel in specific areas and, when chartering out a ship, the owner will need to negotiate a modification to the charter party to ensure that the charterer is required to supply low sulphur fuel if trading to SECAs. Owners will need to consider modifying their existing tonnage to permit better segregation of bunkers and shipbuilders and designers will have to...

Final KG

When a ship is completed by the builders, certain written stability information must be handed over to the shipowner with the ship. Details of the information required are contained in the load line Rules, parts of which are reproduced in Appendix I of this book. The information includes details of the ship's Lightweight, the Lightweight VCG and LCG, and also the positions of the centres of gravity of cargo and bunker spaces. This gives an initial condition from which the displacement and KG for any condition of loading may be calculated. The final KG is found by taking the moments of the weights loaded or discharged, about the keel. For convenience, when taking the moments, consider the ship to be on her beam ends.

129 Trim

This is particularly easy in ships like bulk carriers and tankers in which it is usual to have one large fuel bunker forward and one large bunker abaft the cargo space. If an excess of fuel capacity of about 50 is provided this should give an ability to trim that will meet most eventualities. Care must be taken, however that the cargo disposition is such that the arrival trim with minimum oil and water is also satisfactory although this can usually be achieved without too much difficulty with the use of water ballast in the trimming tanks.


Ambient temperature is the maximum safe room temperature surrounding the motor if it is going to be operated continuously at full load. In most cases, the standardized ambient temperature rating is 40 C (104 F). This is a very warm room. Certain types of applications such as on board ships and in boiler rooms, may require motors with a higher ambient temperature capability such as 50 C or 60 C.


Transverse Ships

Scantlings of the main transverse frames are primarily dependent on their position, spacing and depth, and to some extent on the rigidity of the end connections. in way of tanks such as oil bunkers or cargo deep tanks the side frame size will be increased, except where supporting side stringers are fitted


Army antitank air-to-ground missile launched from attack helicopters (e.g., the AH-64A Apaches). A later version, the Hellfire II, was developed in 1997 as an antiship missile. It is armed with a blast fragmentation warhead designed for attacks on ships, buildings, and bunkers. The weapon penetrates the target before detonation.

Cylinder oils

The diversity of engine designs, operating conditions and worldwide bunker fuel qualities means there can never be a single truly optimum cylinder oil grade. In certain special circumstances other grades may perform better or at least more cost-effectively. Alternative cylinder lubricants can be considered for special applications or to counter specific problems, or if the ship involved is engaged in a trading pattern where the sulphur level of the bunkers is consistently high or consistently low.

Coating Production

Carbon-carbon composite for cylinder liner The rapid progress made in recent years to bring the marine diesel engine to higher efficiencies has brought with it higher cylinder powers and lower fuel consumption. These excellent properties of the marine diesel engine have been achieved by raising cylinder working pressures and temperatures. This has caused higher mechanical and thermal load onto the combustion chamber components. At the same time bunker oils have declined in quality and the possibilities of corrosion and erosion have turned higher.


The PS was succeeded in 1967 by a second generation engine, the DS series, whose development goals focused on high output, low specific fuel consumption and compactness for genset and main engine roles. Market demands for higher fuel economy with the capability to burn lower grade bunkers led to the introduction of a third generation engine, the longer stroke DL series, which includes eight medium speed models with bore sizes ranging from 190 mm to 400 mm and covering an output band up to 4415 kW. The DL series remains in the production programme alongside the fourth generation DK series, designed to address requirements in the 1990s for high reliability, durability and extended service intervals.

71 Introduction

In addition to the conventional weapons, the Tomahawk cruise missile can carry HPMs (also known as E-Bombs). As stated in Section 6.9.1, microwave weapons represent a revolutionary concept in warfare, principally because microwaves are designed to incapacitate equipment rather than humans. More specifically, HPMs are man-made lightning bolts crammed into cruise missiles such as the Tomachawk. They could be used for targeting stockpiles of biological and chemical weapons. HPMs fry sophisticated computers and electronic gear necessary to produce, protect, store, and deliver such agents. The powerful electromagnetic pulses can travel into deeply buried bunkers through ventilation shafts, plumbing, and antennas. HPMs can unleash in a flash 2 billion watts or more of electrical power.

2712History of MV

In the 1960s several efforts were initiated to formulate and codify equations that could predict dynamic heating and cooling loads, including efforts at the National Bureau of Standards to predict temperatures in fallout shelters,14 and the 1967 HCC program developed by a group of mechanical engineering consultants,15 which used the Total Equivalent Temperature Difference Time Averaging (TETD TA) method. The popularity of this program prompted the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) to embark on a series of efforts that eventually delivered today's modern, general purpose simulation programs16 (i.e., DOE-2, BLAST, EnergyPlus, etc.),

Lubricating Oils

Significantly improved thermal efficiency, fuel economy and ability to burn poor quality bunkers have resulted from the intensive development of low speed crosshead and high medium speed trunk piston engine designs in the past 20 years. Further progress in performance and enhanced lifetimes can be expected from the exploitation of higher firing pressures and better combustion characteristics.

Bump contact

Number used in the study of heat transfer during evaporation. 'bul-s-jsn .nsm-bsr bump contact electr A large-area contact used for alloying directly to the substrate of a transistor for mounting or interconnecting purposes. 'bsmp .kan.takt bumper eng 1. A metal bar attached to one or both ends of a powered transportation vehicle, especially an automobile, to prevent damage to the body. 2. In a drilling operation, the supporting stay between the main foundation sill and the engine block. 3. In drilling, a fishing tool for loosening jammed cable tools. 'bsm-psr bumping See chugging. 'bsm-pig bund civ eng An embankment or embanked thoroughfare along a body of water the term is used particularly for such structures in the Far East. bsnd bundling machine mech eng A device that automatically accumulates cans, cartons, or glass containers for semiautomatic or automatic loading or for shipping cartons by assembling the packages into units of predetermined count and pattern which are then...

195 Voyage Costs

- bunkers 19.5.1 Bunkers Oil fuel The cost of fuel can be minimised by a careful choice of bunkering port, although any cost saving thus obtained must first meet any additional costs if a diversion is required or there is any reduction in cargo carrying capacity or increase in average voyage displacement increasing power and consumption. The fuel cost can also be reduced by the use of a poorer quality of fuel, although any saving must be assessed against any extra costs for purifiers, etc. needed for the fuel to be used and any increases in maintenance and repair costs that may result from its use. Bulk buying is yet another way of getting fuel at an advantageous price. Although the quantity of lubricating oil consumed is relatively small its high unit cost results in it being a considerable item of expenditure. This item is sometimes included with stores, but as the usage depends on the distance travelled it seems better grouped with bunkers.

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