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Advanced Ceramic Coatings For Marine Gas Turbine Engines D.J. Wortman & B.A. Nagaraj, Engineering Materials Technology Laboratories, General Electric Aircraft Engines 111-49 Development and Performance of Physical Vapor Deposition Thermal Barrier Coating Systems T.E. Strangman, Garrett Turbine Engine Company (GTEC), a Unit of Allied-Signal Inc. 111-63 Coatings for Diesel Engines and Associated Problems I. Kvernes & 0. Noerholm, IK Engineering 111-73 Design Criteria for a Coating to Reduce...

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Lubricated with mineral oil and water, to determine the effect of load and speed on friction and wear performance. The results show that at a specific load both the friction coefficient and the wear rate increase to a level comparable with the data in unlubricated tests. The magnitude of the transition load was found to depend on the lubricating fluid and the test speed. It was hypothesized that the transition is related to the contact temperature or tribo-chemical reactions. These results...

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Conducted on the same engine the 14L Cummins NT Series. The wide range of predicted fuel consumption improvements between these three studies, from a high' of six percent in turbocharged configuration to a low of less than one percent in turbocompound configuration. is especially noteworthy. Although at first glance this only reaffirms the wide range of predictions concerning the impact of insulation on engine performance, one very significant conclusion can be drawn from, such a review. As...

Instantaneous IMEP Method

The Instantaneous IMEP method employs a force balance between the measured cylinder pressure force, the compressive force in the connecting rod, the inertia force and the friction force. Considering the components of these forces acting along the cylinder axis, the sum of the other three equals the friction force of the piston, rings and piston pin assembly. Figure 1 shows a single cylinder version of the Cummins 903 V-8 engine modified for the Instantaneous IMEP method. The large pipe...

Info

I -6a o .SB- . .881 i i i m i i i i 12 24 36 48 68 72 84 96 188 128 TIME (tllN) Fig. 12 Friction coefficient during test - chrome oxide ring on chrome oxide liner, synthetic oil A. ttfn t ctrintt AIng LMj< UATIS55- O Cr20J Cr20 - Cr C2 Cr20J - CrJC2 Cr203 - -------- --O TT5 r 2ZL Fig. 13 Piston ring and cylinder liner wear coefficients for various Cameron Plint tests. Solid and dashed lines show variation of ring and liner wear with temperature for conventional materials (Cr plated ring, grey...

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Meletis E., Carter W., Hocfntn R., 17th IMS Tech Meeting 3. Rcrcfiawa H., Jdnson P.C., Fed, Research g Development 1. Randrcwa H,, Johnson P.C., Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposition Process 5. Buishdi R,, Schrami R., TTiln Solid Films 10 (1977) Diamond Thin Films by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition - The Emerging Technology for Hard Coatings

US Department of Energy

Rudolph Diesel received academic training in late 19th Century classical thermodynamics. About 100 years ago he was working in the Linde Ice Machine Company where he noted the large amount of heat given off by reciprocating ammonia compressors. This observation lead to his ideas about compressing air in a similar manner to over 10 times its initial volume such that the air temperature rose high enough to ignite an injected fuel charge. He first published a thermodynamic analysis of his engine...

S Danyluk SM Hsu and S Jahanmir

It has been estimated that the effective use and advances in tribology can save the U.S. economy 18 billion dollars per year, and 40 in the effective transfer of existing tribological expertise to practicing engineers and designers. A computerized numeric database with easy, quick access to both recommended practice as well as design codes will help to achieve this goal. A computerized database with validated numerical data, and best judgement values by experts will aid in establishing...

Coating Production

Bond coat Al-35Si (RST, new development) Grain size 38-90 urn Top coat a) 25 MgO ZrO- (Amperit) Grain size 10-53 um b) 8 Y203 Zr02 (Amperit) Grain size 10-70 um Coatings were deposited using an Eutronic Plasma 80 kw unit. A mixture of argon + 12 hydrogen plasma bearing gas was used. We have sprayed sane samples with a cermet (ceramic metallic mixture) layer (0.05 mm) in the ceramic coatings, approximately 0.5 mm apart in order to reduce the crack propagation in the coatings. A second type of...

Expenditures For Gasoline

High pay-off R& D on promising transportation heat engine propulsion conservation technologies has been constructed. This program aims to provide the automotive industry with proof-of-concepts for advanced engine technology with potential for fuel economy improvement on the order of 30 . Similarly the advanced diesel technology efforts are expected to provide the heavy duty transport industry with like fuel economy improvements. Supporting technologies are included in the program with...

Seaworthy Systems

The results of a 14,000-hour marine industry demonstration of thin ceramic coatings in diesel engine combustion components are truly encouraging. These superior ceramic coatings on the piston crowns, exhaust valves, and the heads have operated in everyday towboat operation for over two years and have demonstrated the durability needed for extended component lifetimes in commercial operation. These ceramic coated components have produced a smoother running engine, with a reduced cetane...

Future Coatings Development Work At Cummins

Cummins Engine Company has recently been awarded a Department of Energy contract to develop wear resistant ceramic coatings for diesel engine components (Program 86X SA581V). The objective of this program is to develop advanced wear resistant coatings for future, low heat rejection diesel engines. Coatings and substrates (for piston rings and cylinder liners) are to be developed to meet the following requirements. Low wear (as measured in laboratory rig tests at ambient and 350 C). Wear...

Thermal Barrier Coatings for Diesel Engine Components

An additional set of problems will be associated with the transfer of aerospace TBCs to diesel engines. This is partly because thicker coatings will be required to meet the insulation needs for most of the more advanced applications, and higher stresses are generally associated with thicker coatings. Currently NASA-Lewis is managing two DOE-sponsored contracts which are designed to develop thermal barrier coatings for truck diesel engines. (This program has been discussed at this conference)....

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Tribology Program structure Figur 2. Tribology Program structure higher speeds, power is transmitted through gear systems with higher efficiency. A major effort at NBS in 1987 was the assessment of the thermo-oxidative stability characteristics of synthetic oils. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning catorimetry (DSC) methods were developed for this work. Basic property data were accumulated on poly-a-olefins (PAO), phosphate esters (PE), polyol esters (TMP),...

Introduction

Future engine manufacturers' trends for heavy duty diesel (HDD) engines are driving toward a) higher top ring reversal temperatures (through the use of in-cylinder insulation and high top ring positions), b) decreased oil supply to the compression rings (to meet emissions durability goals (e.g. 1 million miles mean time before overhaul). These requirements will place much greater stress on the in-cylinder tribology system, which in a conventional HDD engine is typically comprised of Cr...

S

FIGURE 2 Wear rate as a function of temperature for conventional piston ring and cylinder liner materials tested with a 15W40 CE SF mineral oil based lubricant (Cameron plint data). FIGURE 3 Friction coefficient as a function of temperature for two different oil supply rates (one drop every 10 or 100 seconds) conventional ring and liner materials, commerical 15W40 CE SF mineral oil based lubricant. FIGURE 3 Friction coefficient as a function of temperature for two different oil supply rates...

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Fraction and characteristic depth of the soot layer calculated for the center of the head of a heavy duty diesel engine. of the parameters. The absorption coefficient was varied from 10 m' (approaching fully transparent limit) to 10 m l (approaching fully opaque limit). The scattering coefficient was varied over the same range of values, and the back-scattering coefficient was varied over the same range of values, and the back-scattering fraction from 0.05 to 0.5. The refractive index of the...

References

Carnot, Reflections sur la puissance motrice du feu, Chez Bachelier Libraire, Paris, 1824. 2. W. N. Harrison, D. G. Moore, and J. C. Richmond, Review of an investigation of ceramic coatings for metallic turbine parts and other high-temperature applications, NACA TN-1186,1947. 3. S. Stecura, Two-layer thermal barrier coating for turbine airfoils -- furnace and burner rig test results, NASA TM X-3425, 1976. 4. C. H. Liebert, R. E. Jacobs, S. Stecura and C. R. Morse, Durability of zirconia...

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Compression n0- 2 Expansion Compression n0- 2 Expansion Figure 1. Temperature Profile adjacent to combustion chamber wall at various times in the Figure 1. Temperature Profile adjacent to combustion chamber wall at various times in the Ikegami went on to demonstrate the impact of such phenomena on an insulated engine. An increase in wall temperature of 300 degrees C was calculated to result in a reduction in peak heat flux slightly over ten percent. This compares with values on the order of 50...