9 Operating Characteristics Of

STIRLING ENGINES 203

Introduction 203

Ideal maximum power and efficiency 203

The real cycle 203

Dead volume 203

Adiabatic cycle 205

Thermal losses 206

Conduction 206

Shuttle heat transfer 206

Convection and radiation 206

Stack loss 207

Heal exchanger temperature potential 207

Imperfect regeneration 207

Friction effects 208

Mechanical friction 208

Aerodynamic friction 208

Cngine auxiliaries 209

Operating characteristics of real engines 209

Power and efficiency 209

Torque/ speed 210

Cyclic torque 210

Heater and cooler temperatures 212

Heat balance 212

Performance map 213

Emission characteristics of Stirling engines 216

Noise 218

Starting 219

Engine response 220

Specific output 221

Cost 222

Air engines 223

Free-piston Stirling engines 233

ID CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR STIRLING

Introduction 234

Maximum temperature 235

Engine response 236

Temperature control systems 236

Power control systems 238

Pressure level modulation 238

CorLsfmrf speed system (Philips) 239

Short-circuiting (Philips) 240

Variable speed system (Philips) 241

Variable speed system (United Stirling) 243

General Motors system 244

Pressure-amplitude variation 246

Phase-angle variation 249

Stroke variation 252

II FREE-PISTON STIRLING ENGINES 254

Introduction 254

Description of free-piston engine dynamics 254

Working space forces 257

Gas pressure forces 257

Gas spring forces 259

Damping forces 259

Types of engine 259

The two-piston free-piston engine 259

The piston-displacer free-piston engine 261

Double-acting free-piston engines 263

Variations of geometrical arrangements 264

Computer simulation of free-piston dynamics 266

Thermodynamic and dynamic optimization 267

Sunpower design procedure 269

Design problems in free-piston engines 270

Piston centering 270

Gas lubrication 273

Mechanical interferences 274

Power modulation 274

Starting 275

Advantages of reciprocating power 276

Reciprocating load devices 276

Applications 280

Artificial hearts 280

Heat pumps 283

Electric-power generation 283

Solar-electric power 283

Third World power 286

Performance 286

Areas for further work 286

Conclusion 287

12 PHILIPS STIRLING ENGINES 288

Introduction 288

Initial phase 288

Origin 288

Early publications 289

Double-acting engines 289

Small power generators ■ 292

Cryogenic phase 296

Rhombic phase 297

A fresh start 297

Rhombic drive 298

Tubular heater 298

Split regenerator 298

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

The solar Stirling engine is progressively becoming a viable alternative to solar panels for its higher efficiency. Stirling engines might be the best way to harvest the power provided by the sun. This is an easy-to-understand explanation of how Stirling engines work, the different types, and why they are more efficient than steam engines.

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