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12 Technology And

In the late 1800's to the early 1900's, there was much work done with wireless (the original term for radio) communication. One person heavily involved in this work was Gugliemo Marconi. Marconi did many experiments in Italy and was interested in how to send messages across the airwaves. He studied the experiments that Hertz and other pioneers in the field were performing, and he wanted to conduct such experiments himself. His work involved sending RF energy across distances using some of the techniques shown in Figures 1.4 and 1.5. The key elements in his experiments were a method to create RF energy (which was accomplished by a high voltage coil), a power source (battery), and a way to transfer the energy to the air (plates). Today antennas accomplish this energy transfer. He then constructed a way to receive the energy by creating a receiver system that consisted of plates and a device that allowed the detection of the spark energy allowing the sound to be heard in headphones. A...

121 Material and Fabrication

Figure 1.2 Schematic diagram of the MCVD process commonly used for fiber fabrication. (After Ref. 75 .) Figure 1.2 Schematic diagram of the MCVD process commonly used for fiber fabrication. (After Ref. 75 .) Several methods can be used for making a preform. The three commonly used methods are modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD), outside vapor deposition (OVD), and vapor-phase axial deposition (VAD). Figure 1.2 shows a schematic diagram of the MCVD process. In this process, successive layers of SiO2 are deposited on the inside of a fused silica tube by mixing the vapors of SiCl4 and O2 at a temperature of 1800 C. To ensure uniformity, the multiburner torch is moved back and forth across the tube length. The refractive index of the cladding layers is controlled by adding fluorine to the tube. When a sufficient cladding thickness has been deposited with multiple passes of the torch, the vapors of GeCl4 or POCl3 are added to the vapor mixture to form the core. When all layers have...

Rib Located At Edge Of Forging With Parting Line At Center

There are no hard-and-fast rules that apply to the dimensions of ribs. In general, the rib height should not exceed eight times the rib width. Most forging companies prefer to work with rib height-to-width ratios between 4 1 and 6 1. Figure 2.48 summarizes, for several alloys, suggested minimum section size limits for ribs and webs with conventional fillet and corner radii and draft angles. Fillet and corner radii are shown in Figure 2.49. In Figure 2.49a, the influence of impression depth on corner radii of ribs, bosses, and other edges for steel and aluminum forgings of average proportions is seen in Figure 2.49b, the influence of rib height on minimum filet radius for steel and aluminum is shown in Figure 2.49c, are representative fillet and comer radii for forgings of several materials with 1-in.-high ribs and in Figure 2.49d. representative minimum fillet and corner radii of steel forgings on a weight basis are given. Figure 2.50a shows various die fillets for comer radii for...

14 Airbreathing Engines

The heart of a gas turbine type of engine is the gas generator. A schematic diagram of a gas generator is shown in Fig. 1-3. The compressor, combustor. and turbine are the major components of the gas generator which is common to the turbojet, turbofan. turboprop, and turboshaft engines. The purpose of a gas generator is to supply high-temperature and high-pressure gas.

Basic Instrumentation for Electrophoresis

Instrumentation for performing electrophoresis is both cheap and simple. It consists of a means of generating a DC voltage, a buffer tank which also has some means of holding the separation media between the two electrodes. A schematic diagram of such a horizontal tank is shown in Figure 9. Such an apparatus needs to be levelled in order to prevent the electrolyte from siphoning from one end to the other and so disturbing the electrophoretic resolution. The Figure 9 Schematic diagram for a paper or membrane elec-trophoresis system. Figure 9 Schematic diagram for a paper or membrane elec-trophoresis system. Figure 10 Schematic diagram of a vertical gel electrophoresis system. Figure 10 Schematic diagram of a vertical gel electrophoresis system.

Overpressured Layer Chromatography

Figure 2 Schematic diagram of online OPLC. 1, Support block 2, chromatoplate 3, support plate 4, spring 5, casette system for fixing the chromatoplate between two Teflon layers 6, Teflon layer 7, Mobile phase inlet 8, mobile phase outlet 9, hydraulic system. Figure 2 Schematic diagram of online OPLC. 1, Support block 2, chromatoplate 3, support plate 4, spring 5, casette system for fixing the chromatoplate between two Teflon layers 6, Teflon layer 7, Mobile phase inlet 8, mobile phase outlet 9, hydraulic system.

Circulation Systems Commissioning procedure

Figure 19.2 Schematic diagram of typical oil-circulation system. Oil is discharged to points of application, returned and re-circulated Figure 19.2 Schematic diagram of typical oil-circulation system. Oil is discharged to points of application, returned and re-circulated

13413 Impact Acoustic Resonance

In several applications of ceramic composites, the damping behavior and the resonant frequency is important. This is especially true for rotating components in turbomachinery. There are primarily two methods that can be used to determine resonant frequency of a component or subcomponent 53, 54 . These are continuous excitation with a swept frequency while monitoring the vibration of the component or by using a sharp impact excitation together with a method to detect the excited vibrations. There are advantages and disadvantages to both methods. Figure 13.28 shows a schematic diagram of one type of acoustic resonance FIGURE 13.28 Schematic diagram of an impact acoustic resonance setup used to obtain resonant frequencies of ceramic composite components. FIGURE 13.28 Schematic diagram of an impact acoustic resonance setup used to obtain resonant frequencies of ceramic composite components.

SEC Concentration Detectors and Sample Concentration

Figure 2 is a schematic diagram of a commercially available evaporative light scattering detector. Figure 2 A schematic diagram of a commercially available evaporative light scattering detector. Printed with the permission of Polymer Laboratories Ltd, Church Stretton, Shropshire, UK. Figure 2 A schematic diagram of a commercially available evaporative light scattering detector. Printed with the permission of Polymer Laboratories Ltd, Church Stretton, Shropshire, UK.

Process Dynamics And Mathematical Models

Open-Loop versus Closed-Loop Dynamics It is common in industry to manipulate coolant in a jacketed reactor in order to control conditions in the reactor itself. A simplified schematic diagram of such a reactor control system is shown in Fig. 8-2. Assume that the reactor temperature is adjusted by a controller that increases the coolant flow in proportion to the difference between the desired reactor temperature and the temperature that is measured. The proportionality constant is K . If a small change in the temperature of the inlet stream occurs, then depending on the value of K one might observe the reactor temperature responses shown in Fig. 8-3. The top plot shows the case for no control (K 0), which is called the open loop, or the normal dynamic response of the process by itself. As Kc increases, several effects can be noted. First, the reactor temperature responds faster and faster. Second, for the initial increases in Kc, the maximum deviation in the reactor temperature becomes...

337 Sodiummetalchloride Battery

The sodium-metal-chloride battery is a derivative of the sodium-sulfur battery with intrinsic provisions of overcharge and overdischarge. The construction is similar to that of the NaS battery, but the positive sulfur electrode is replaced by nickel chloride (NiCl2) or a mixture of nickel chloride and ferrous chloride (FeCl2). The negative electrode and the electrolyte are the same as in a NaS battery. The schematic diagram of a NaNiCl2 cell is shown in Figure 3.7. In order to provide good ionic contact between the positive electrode and the electrolyte, both of which are solids, a second electrolyte of sodium chloraluminate (NaAlCU) is introduced in a layer between NiCl2 and beta-alumina. The NaAlCl4 electrolyte is a vital component of the battery, although it reduces the specific energy of the battery by about 10 .- The operating temperature is again high, similar to that of the NaS battery. The basic cell reactions for the nickel chloride and ferrous chloride positive electrodes...

Operation and Maintenance

Fig. 38-25 Basic GAX-Cycle Schematic Diagram. Source Energy Concepts Co. Fig. 38-25 Basic GAX-Cycle Schematic Diagram. Source Energy Concepts Co. Fig. 38-26 VX GAX-Cycle Schematic Diagram. Source Energy Concepts Co. Fig. 38-26 VX GAX-Cycle Schematic Diagram. Source Energy Concepts Co.

Membrane Electrolysis

A typical example of this kind of application is the membrane electrolysis of sodium chloride to produce chlorine, hydrogen and sodium hydroxide (membrane chlor-alkali process). A schematic diagram for this process is presented in Figure 7. Perfluorocarbon cation exchange membranes for chlor-alkali processes should have an anisotropic structure in their cross-section. The cathode side of the membrane has a thin layer of carboxylic acid groups of a given ion exchange capacity, and the anode side of the membrane has a thick sulfonic acid group layer or a car-boxylic acid group layer of high ion exchange capacity. Ion exchange membranes can also be applied for the electrodialysis of water to produce hydrogen and oxygen. The technology exploiting a solid polymer electrolyte method is efficient when perfluorocar-bon cation exchange membranes are used in the form of a stack with catalytic electrodes covering the membrane surfaces. Ion exchange membranes are also used as separators in...

Expression for Multiplication

Fig. 9.4 Simplified model of avalanche photodiode (a) structural concept by stack of multiple layers, (b) image of the doping profile, (c) image of electric field, and (d) schematic diagram of avalanche multiplication region. (The electric field is applied between x 0 to Lm. Definition of direction of electric field and electron and hole currents are also defined.)

335 Alternate Device Structures for CMOS

FIGURE 3.5 Schematic diagram of an example vertical field-effect transistor. For this device, the current between the source and drain flows in the vertical direction. The channel material is formed by epitaxial growth, where the channel length (Lc) is controlled by the film thickness rather than by lithography. FIGURE 3.5 Schematic diagram of an example vertical field-effect transistor. For this device, the current between the source and drain flows in the vertical direction. The channel material is formed by epitaxial growth, where the channel length (Lc) is controlled by the film thickness rather than by lithography.

Principle of Long Distance Oplc Ldoplc

Figure 3 Schematic diagram of multi-layer OPLC (ML-OPLC). (Bj (A) Linear one-directional development (B) linear two-directional development (C) circular development. Figure 3 Schematic diagram of multi-layer OPLC (ML-OPLC). (Bj (A) Linear one-directional development (B) linear two-directional development (C) circular development.

Terminology Nomenclature

Figure 1 Schematic diagram illustrating polymorphism (A)-(C) and pseudopolymorphism (D), (E) Filled circles represent included solvent molecules. Figure 1 Schematic diagram illustrating polymorphism (A)-(C) and pseudopolymorphism (D), (E) Filled circles represent included solvent molecules.

Problems in Practical Applications of Bipolar Membranes

Figure 4 Schematic diagram illustrating (A) the contamination of an acid and a base by salt to incomplete permeability of the cation and anion exchange layers of a bipolar membrane (B) experimentally determined salt contamination as a function of the acid and base concentrations (C) the decrease in current efficiency during the production of acids and bases due to the poor acid-blocking capability of the anion exchange membrane (D) experimentally determined current efficiency as a function of the produced acid and base concentration. Figure 4 Schematic diagram illustrating (A) the contamination of an acid and a base by salt to incomplete permeability of the cation and anion exchange layers of a bipolar membrane (B) experimentally determined salt contamination as a function of the acid and base concentrations (C) the decrease in current efficiency during the production of acids and bases due to the poor acid-blocking capability of the anion exchange membrane (D) experimentally...

13332 Damage from Machining

FIGURE 13.11 Schematic diagram of one grinding setup and descriptions of types of induced damage (a) grinding wheel on test piece, and (b) diagram of typical damage types of brittle materials. FIGURE 13.11 Schematic diagram of one grinding setup and descriptions of types of induced damage (a) grinding wheel on test piece, and (b) diagram of typical damage types of brittle materials.

Geometry And Numerical Grids

A schematic diagram of the geometry is shown in Figure 2.1. It has a rectangular cross section with channel aspect ratio AR 4 1. Two of the four side walls, in the rotational direction, are denoted as the leading and trailing surfaces, respectively, while the other two side walls are denoted as the top and bottom surfaces. The channel hydraulic diameter, Dh, is 0.8 in (2.03 cm). The distance from the inlet of the channel to the axis of rotation (Y-axis) is given by Rr Dh 20.0 and the length of the channel is given as L Dh 22.5. The channel consists of unheated starting smooth length (Lj Dh 9.92), heated smooth or ribbed section (L2 Dh 7.58) and unheated exit smooth section (L3 Dh 5.00). The arc length S is measured from the beginning of the heated section to the end of it. In the ribbed section, the leading and trailing surfaces are roughened with nine equally spaced V-shaped ribs of square cross section. The rib height-to-hydraulic diameter ratio (e Dh) is 0.078 and the...

2 Description Of Problem

A schematic diagram of the geometry is shown in Figure 3.1. It has a rectangular cross section with channel aspect ratio, AR, of 4 1. Two geometries are investigated, one with smooth walls (Figure 3.1a) and the other one with ribs (Figure 3.1b). Two of the four side walls, in the rotational direction, are denoted as the leading and trailing surfaces, respectively, while the other two side walls are denoted as the top and bottom surfaces. The channel hydraulic diameter, Dh, is 0.8 in (2.03 cm). The distance from the inlet of the channel to the axis of rotation (Y-axis) is given by Rr Dh 20.0 and the length of the channel is given as L Dh 22.5. The channel consists of unheated starting smooth length (L1 Dh 9.92), heated smooth or ribbed section (L2 Dh 7.58) and unheated exit smooth section (L3 Dh 5.00). The arc length S is measured from the beginning of the heated section to the end of it. In the ribbed section, the leading and trailing surfaces are roughened with nine equally spaced...

Plasma Spray Processing

Approximately 25 years in the gas turbine industry for application of protective coatings to various engine components. Basically, the material to be sprayed is introduced into the flow stream of a plasma torch, heated to its melting point while traversing the gun-to-workpiece standoff, and projected onto the component surface by the velocity of the gas stream. A schematic diagram of a torch and powder injector are presented in Figure 5. The process is highly versatile virtually any material can be sprayed if it can be reduced to powder form and does not decompose during the short residence time in the high velocity hot gases.

Solid solution formation

If component A is the impurity, A > 1 indicates that the impurity will be enriched in the precipitate. Conversely, if A < 1 it will be depleted. A schematic diagram of the effect of precipitation rate on A is shown in Figure 8.6 (Walton, 1967). In enrichment systems, A Ae De as the precipitation rate tends to zero. For fast rates of precipitation A 1. For depletion systems, an analogous situation exists with A Ad Dd for very slow precipitation and A 1 for rapid precipitation.

210 Gasmetal eutectic solidification

A schematic diagram of the basic approach is shown in Figure 2.10. A furnace placed within a pressure vessel is used to melt an alloy under an appropriate pressure of hydrogen (typically 5-10 atmospheres of hydrogen). This melt is then poured into a mold where directional eutectic solidification is allowed to occur. This results in an object containing a reasonably large (up to 30 ) volume fraction of pores. The pore volume fraction and pore orientation are a sensitive function of alloy chemistry, melt over-pressure, melt superheat (which affects the hydrogen solubility of the liquid metal), the temperature field in the liquid during solidification, and the rate of solidification. With so many process variables, control and optimization of the pore structure are difficult. The method poses certain safety issues, and in its present form is a batch process. As a result, materials manufactured by this route are costly. Though GASAR materials were among the first highly porous materials...

103 Scintillation Counters

The amount of light released when a particle strikes a phosphor is often proportional to the energy deposited, and thus makes the detector especially useful for the determination of particle energies. Since charged particles have a short range, most of their energy appears in the substance. Gamma rays also give rise to an energy deposition through electron recoil in both the photoelectric effect and Compton scattering, and through the pair production-annihilation process. A schematic diagram of a detector system is shown in Fig. 10.3. Some of the light released in the phosphor is collected in the photomultiplier tube, which consists of a set of electrodes with photosensitive surfaces. When a photon strikes the surface, an electron is emitted by the photoelectric effect, it is accelerated to the next surface where it dislodges more electrons, and so on, and a multiplication of current is achieved. An amplifier then increases the electrical signal to a level convenient for counting or...

412 The Photovoltaic Effect

Figure 4.6 shows a schematic diagram of a PV device and its load circuit. As free electrons are generated in the n layer by the action of photons, they can either pass through an external circuit, recombine with positive holes in the lateral direction, or move toward the p layer. The negative charges in the p layer at the p-n junction restrict their movement in that direction. If the n layer is made extremely thin, the movement of the electrons and, therefore, the probability of recombination within the n layer is greatly reduced unless the external circuit is open. If the external circuit is open, the electrons generated by the action of photons eventually recombine with the holes, resulting in an increase in the temperature of the device.

Experimental Considerations

If higher concentrations of buffer are used, particularly with high concentrations of organic solvent, then bubble formation can become a problem. This can be overcome by operating the whole capillary under pressure. Figure 4 is a schematic diagram showing such a pressurized apparatus.

Vibration Detectors Transducers and Cables

Figure 8.2 Schematic diagram of velocity pickup (1) pickup case, (2) wire out, (3) damper, (4) mass, (5) spring, (6) magnet. Figure 8.2 Schematic diagram of velocity pickup (1) pickup case, (2) wire out, (3) damper, (4) mass, (5) spring, (6) magnet. Velocity transducers are electromechanical sensors designed to monitor casing, or relative, vibration. Unlike displacement probes, velocity transducers measure the rate of displacement rather than the distance of movement. Velocity is normally expressed in terms of inches per second (in. sec) peak, which is perhaps the best method of expressing the energy caused by machine vibration. Figure 8.2 is a schematic diagram of a velocity measurement device. Figure 8.3 Schematic diagram of accelerometer (1) base, (2) piezoelectric crystals, (3) mass, (4) case. Figure 8.3 Schematic diagram of accelerometer (1) base, (2) piezoelectric crystals, (3) mass, (4) case.

69 Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers

Are not easily met with edge-emitting lasers and have provided the incentive to develop lasers that emit from the top surface of a wafer and can easily be fashioned into arrays. The result is the VCSEL shown in the schematic diagram of Fig. 6.21. In the VCSEL, the optical wave propagates normal to, rather than along, the plane of the active layers of the laser. The resonant cavity for a VCSEL is formed, not by cleaved facets, but by a pair of stacked-dielectric distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirrors, and the laser emission exits from the surface of the structure through a ring or transparent contact.

Hybrid Integrated Module on PLC Platform

Fig. 13.23 Schematic diagram showing the integrated bi-directional module on the Si-platform for FTTH application. Comer-illuminated PD is used in the module. Fig. 13.23 Schematic diagram showing the integrated bi-directional module on the Si-platform for FTTH application. Comer-illuminated PD is used in the module.

Basic Instrumental Requirements and Considerations

For multidimensional GC (MDGC) analysis, it is not a difficult task when dealing with relatively low boiling mixtures to couple two columns together, and to have gas-sampling valves or a flow-switching device to allow transfer of effluent. The classical Deans switch relies on pressure differences to pass carrier flow in different directions. Figure 1 presents a schematic diagram of a typical commercial MDGC system, comprising one oven, two columns, two detectors, a midpoint restrictor at which point the diversion of column flow to either the first detector or the second column occurs. A cold trap focuses heart-cut

Groundwater And Aquifers

Water exists in various forms in various places. Water can exist in vapor, liquid, or solid forms and exists in the atmosphere (atmospheric water), above the ground surface (surface water), and below the ground surface (subsurface water). Both surface and subsurface waters originate from precipitation, which includes all forms of moisture from clouds, including rain and snow. A portion of the precipitated liquid water runs off over the land (surface runoff), infiltrates and flows through the subsurface (subsurface flow), and eventually finds its way back to the atmosphere through evaporation from lakes, rivers, and the ocean transpiration from trees and plants or evapotranspiration from vegetation. This chain process is known as the hy-drologic cycle. Figure 9.1.1 shows a schematic diagram of the hydrologic cycle.

1544Early Age Property Monitoring

The ultrasonic reflection method requires access to only one face or side of the structure. Freshly mixed HPC is placed in a mold. Transducers that excite and receive ultrasonic sound wave pulses are attached to the outside of a steel plate that is placed in the HPC. The top surface of the steel plate is flush with the surface of concrete. The reflection of ultrasonic waves at the steel-concrete interface is recorded during the setting and hardening of HPC. A schematic diagram of the test setup is shown in Figure 15.11.

Principles of safety

Charge separation can occur in a number of ways but the most frequent means are by the contact and separation of materials and by electrostatic induction. In Fig. 4.1 is shown a schematic diagram of the development of different types of incendiary gas discharge arising from accumulated static charges.

Claddingpumped Fiber Lasers

Coupled powers is through the use of double-clad fiber lasers. These cladding-pumped fiber lasers are designed to have two distinct waveguiding regions a large multimode guiding region for the diode pump light and a rare-earth-doped single-mode core from which the diffraction-limited laser output is extracted. A schematic diagram of a high-power Yb3+ cladding-pumped fiber laser is shown in Fig. 7.15. The diode laser pump is contained in a silica (n 1.46) rectangular waveguiding region of dimensions 360 X 120 xm, usually referred to as the pump cladding. The pump cladding region is typically surrounded by a low-index polymer (n 1.39) giving a high NA pump region (NA 0.48) into which to couple diode laser power. The low-index polymer is coated with a second protective polymer. The Yb3+-doped single-mode core is located at the center of the pump cladding. If the background losses of the pump cladding can be neglected, the only loss of mechanism of the pump light is when the rays...

145 Description Of Various Laserbased Rapid Manufacturing Techniques

Sandia National Laboratory has pioneered the development of a process called laser engineered net shapes (LENS) 24 . In the LENS process a fiber optically delivered Nd YAG laser is used to completely melt and fuse powder feedstock. The process is performed under an inert argon atmosphere where the oxygen content is reported to be less than 10 ppm. Currently, the LENS system utilizes a three-axis motion system where the part translates in X and Y and the laser beam is adjusted in the Z direction as the part builds. Many materials have been processed using LENS, including 316L stainless steel, alloy 625, Ti-6Al-4V, and H13 tool steels 25 . As will be shown later, tensile data has been reported for 316L stainless steel, alloy 625, and Ti-6Al-4V. A schematic diagram of the process, as implemented by Optomec Design Corporation, is shown in Fig. 14.1.

Compressive Stress Strain

Fig. 2.9 schematic diagram is subjected to a set of equal and opposite shearing force load (Q). The top view represents a material with equal and opposite shearing forces and the bottom view is a schematic of a theoretical infinitesimally thin layers subject to shear stress. As shown at the bottom with the infinitesimally thin layers there is a tendency for one layer of the material to slide over another to produce a shear form of deformation or failure if the force is great enough. The shear stress will always be tangential to the area upon which it acts. The shearing strain is the angle of deformation as measured in radians. For materials that behave according to Hooke's Law, shear strain is proportional to the shear stress. The constant G is called the shear modulus, modulus of rigidity, or torsion modulus.

7511 Molecular AND and OR Gates Using Diode Diode Logic

Circuits for AND and OR digital logic gates based upon diodes, so-called diode-diode logic structures, have been known for decades. Schematic diagrams for these two circuits are shown, respectively, in Figures 7.12(a) and 7.13(a).106,107 The operation of these logic circuits is explained in Appendix B, Sections B.1 and B.2.

Site Plans and Major System Drawings

Available copies of site plans of the entire facility should be obtained and studied for the purpose of identifying the location of each area to be addressed in the study. Distribution system and central plant schematic diagrams and equipment schedules should also be obtained to provide a general understanding of those systems. Particularly valuable before embarking upon a site visit are equipment schedules for energy intensive equipment. Reduced scale floor plans are often a useful aid in preliminary study work (for example, to keep notes on locations of equipment or to assist in compiling lighting inventories). If these are available, they should be collected and distributed to the study team in advance.

193 Emergency Core Cooling and Containment

The coolant and find its way out of the primary loop. Knowing that abnormal conditions can exist, the worst possible event, called a design basis accident, is postulated. Backup protection equipment, called engineered safety features, is provided to render the effect of an accident negligible. A loss of coolant accident (LOCA) is the condition typically assumed, in which the main coolant piping somehow breaks and thus the pumps cannot circulate coolant through the core. Although in such a situation the reactor power would be reduced immediately by use of safety rods, there is a continuing supply of heat from the decaying fission products that would tend to increase temperatures above the melting point of the fuel and cladding. In a severe situation, the fuel tubes would be damaged, and a considerable amount of fission products released. In order to prevent melting, an emergency core cooling system (ECCS) is provided in water-moderated reactors, consisting of auxiliary pumps that...

The Lowtemperature Partialoxidation Reforming Of Fuels For Transportation Fuel Cell Systems

Figure 1 shows greatly simplified schematic diagrams for two fuel cell systems, one with a steam reformer and one with an APOR 2 , In the system with a steam reformer, the fuel and water are fed to the reformer, the temperature, humidity, and contaminant levels in the reformate are adjusted (not shown), and the fuel gas is then fed to the fuel cell stack, where 80-85 of the hydrogen is electrochemically oxidized to generate electricity. The exhaust fuel gas is recycled to the burner to provide the energy for fuel reforming. In the system with the APOR, the fuel, water, and air are fed to the reformer, and the reformate (after appropriate conditioning) is fed to the fuel cell stack the spent fuel gas is not recycled to the reformer, although a catalytic burner (not shown) is used to avoid venting hydrogen to the environment.

Few Notes on Software Prototyping

As a teenaged electronics technician I worked for a terribly undercapitalized small company that always spent tomorrow's money on today's problems. There was no spare cash to cover risks. As is so often the case, business issues overrode common sense and the laws of physics all prototypes simply had to work, and were in fact shipped to customers.

71 Development of Reliability Engineering

The US armed forces also had serious reliability problems, particularly with vacuum tubes used in electronic equipment. Studies of electronic equipment reliability at the end of the War showed some startling situations (Shooman, 1968a). In the Navy the number of vacuum tubes in a destroyer had risen from 60 in 1937 to 3200 in 1952. A study conducted during manoeuvres revealed that equipment was operational only 30 of the time. An Army study showed that equipment was broken down between two-thirds and three-quarters of the time. The Air Force found that over a 5-year period maintenance and repair costs of equipment exceeded the initial cost by a factor of 10. It was also discovered that for every vacuum tube in use there was one held as spare and seven in transit, and that one electronics technician was needed for every 250 vacuum tubes. These studies illustrate well the typical problems in reliability engineering, which is concerned not only with reliability but also with...

Physics Of Carbon Nanotubes

'Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, U.S.A. 2Francis Bitter National Magnet Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, U.S.A. Department of Electronics-Engineering, University of Electro-Communications,

95 Example 4 Fcc Regenerator

A schematic diagram of a typical industrial FCC regenerator is shown in Fig. 9.23. The spent catalyst particles are circulated through the regenerator. The orientation, size and location of the spent catalyst distributor are important parameters controlling solids mixing. The regenerated catalyst is withdrawn from the outlet located at the

Systems for Powder Classification

Fig. 12 Simplified schematic diagram of the Bahco microparticle classifier. 1, electric motor 2, threaded spindle 3, symmetrical disk 4, sifting chamber 5, container 6, housing 7, top edge 8, radial vanes 9, feed point 10, feed hole 11, rotor 12, rotary duct 13, feed slot 14, fanwheel outlet Fig. 12 Simplified schematic diagram of the Bahco microparticle classifier. 1, electric motor 2, threaded spindle 3, symmetrical disk 4, sifting chamber 5, container 6, housing 7, top edge 8, radial vanes 9, feed point 10, feed hole 11, rotor 12, rotary duct 13, feed slot 14, fanwheel outlet

The Space Shuttle Main Engines

The propellant flow system is illustrated in the schematic diagram of Figure 3. (The pump speeds, pressures, and flow rates shown in this figure are somewhat lower than the design conditions of Table 1, which for the SSME pertains to the maximum engine thrust level.) All four of the pumps are driven by turbines and so are called turbopumps. The system picks itself up by its own bootstraps, so to speak each low-pressure turbopump boosts the flow to the corresponding high-pressure pump and is driven by the same fluid that it pumps. This driving fluid comes back from each high-pressure pump, the low-pressure oxygen turbopump (LPOTP) being driven by recirculated liquid oxygen, and the low-pressure hydrogen or fuel turbopump (LPFTP) turbine being fed by gaseous hydrogen heated by the thrust chamber, as indicated in Figure 3.

Waterlevelremoval belttrough

FIG. 19-70 Schematic diagram of an electrolytic flotation plant. FIG. 19-71 Schematic diagram of a dissolved air flotation plant. FIG. 19-70 Schematic diagram of an electrolytic flotation plant. FIG. 19-71 Schematic diagram of a dissolved air flotation plant. FIG. 19-72 Schematic diagram of a recycle dissolved-air flotation plant for water treatment. FIG. 19-72 Schematic diagram of a recycle dissolved-air flotation plant for water treatment.

Recycling H2SO4 and Dimethyl Isopropylamine from an Acid Scrubber

Figure 5 Schematic diagram illustrating a conventional process for recovering an amine from a contaminated air stream using an acid scrubber. Figure 5 Schematic diagram illustrating a conventional process for recovering an amine from a contaminated air stream using an acid scrubber. Figure 6 Schematic diagram illustrating the recovery of dimethylisopropyl amine from a waste air stream by combination of acid scrubber, diffusion dialysis and electrodialytic water dissociation using bipolar membranes and distillation. Figure 6 Schematic diagram illustrating the recovery of dimethylisopropyl amine from a waste air stream by combination of acid scrubber, diffusion dialysis and electrodialytic water dissociation using bipolar membranes and distillation.

18G Gauje and R Morbioli High Temperature Protective Coatings SS Singhal Ed The Metallurgical Society of AIME 1983 p

Figure 1 presents schematic diagrams of the diffusion zones in a series of packs used for the production of aluminide coatings on nickel- and cobalt-based superalloys, in which the source is aluminum or an aluminum alloy and the activator an ammonium or sodium halide. Upon heating, the activator reacts with aluminum to form H2(g) or Na(g) and a series of volatile aluminum halides. The nature and partial pressures of the major constituents in the gas phase in equilibrium with aluminum at high activity in the pack, and at lower activity at the surface of the coating, can be calculated when the free energies of formation of the halides and the activity versus composition relationship for aluminum in the source alloy and coating are known. In the presence of a high aluminum activity, no significant amounts of the halides of other metals in the source or superalloy appear in the gas phase, and these metals are, therefore, not transported in packs of this type. Alloying is used simply to...

Handbook Of Crystal Growth Thin Films Au Insb Diagram

Schematic diagram of ICB system. (Courtesy of W. L. Brown, AT& T Bell Laboratories. Reprinted with permission of the publisher from Ref. 34). Figure 3-26. Schematic diagram of ICB system. (Courtesy of W. L. Brown, AT& T Bell Laboratories. Reprinted with permission of the publisher from Ref. 34).

4324 Suspension control systems

Fig. 43.29 Schematic diagram of the Volvo Computer Suspension (CCS). A major advantage of such a system is that changes to the performance characteristics of its different components, which of course may effect those of others, can be made simply by changing the program on the computer, and the overall effect assessed immediately without having to modify a vehicle and take it on to the test track

Compression Cycle

Backward Curved Impeller Design

Having gotten the flow in and out of the machine, a closer examination of just how the compression takes place is needed. An important concept to maintain throughout the following discussion is that all work done to the gas must be done by the active element, the impeller. The stationary element is passive, that is, it cannot contribute any additional energy to the stage. It can only convert the energy and unfortunately contribute to the losses. Figure 5-20 is a schematic diagram of an impeller and the basic inlet and outlet flow vector triangles.

Continuous Tunnel Dryers

Continuous tunnels are in many cases batch truck or tray compartments, operated in series. The solids to be processed are placed in trays or on trucks which move progressively through the tunnel in contact with hot gases. Operation is semicontinuous when the tunnel is filled, one truck is removed from the discharge end as each new truck is fed into the inlet end. In some cases, the trucks move on tracks or monorails, and they are usually conveyed mechanically, employing chain drives connecting to the bottom of each truck. Schematic diagrams of three typical tunnel arrangements are shown in Fig. 12-54. Belt-conveyor and screen-conveyor tunnels are truly continuous in operation, carrying a layer of solids on an endless conveyor.

Reciprocating Engine Drives

Waukesha Engine Division

Figures 37-35 through 37-37 are schematic diagrams of heat recovery systems commonly applied to reciprocating engine-driven vapor compression systems. Figure 3735 is a closed-loop cooling system, Figure 37-36 is an ebullient cooling system, and Figure 37-37 is a forced circulation steam cooling system. Fig. 37-35 Schematic Diagram of Closed-Loop Cooling Heat Recovery System for Reciprocating Engine-Driven Chiller. Source Waukesha Engine Division and The American Gas Cooling Center Fig. 37-36 Schematic Diagram of Ebullient Cooling Heat Recovery System for Reciprocating Engine-Driven Chiller. Source Waukesha Engine Division and The American Gas Cooling Center Fig. 37-36 Schematic Diagram of Ebullient Cooling Heat Recovery System for Reciprocating Engine-Driven Chiller. Source Waukesha Engine Division and The American Gas Cooling Center Fig. 37-35 Schematic Diagram of Closed-Loop Cooling Heat Recovery System for Reciprocating Engine-Driven Chiller. Source Waukesha Engine Division and The...

85 Metal Semiconductor Reactions

Schematic diagrams of silicide contacts in (a) bipolar and (b) MOS field effect transistor configurations. (Reprinted with permission from Ref. 17, 1985 Annual Reviews Inc.). Figure 8-18. Schematic diagrams of silicide contacts in (a) bipolar and (b) MOS field effect transistor configurations. (Reprinted with permission from Ref. 17, 1985 Annual Reviews Inc.).

155 Fuzzy Logic Control

The hardware system configuration is shown in Figure 15.15 and consisted of a fuzzy controller and a Siemens PLC interface to the controlled plant. A programmable logic controller (PLC) controlled input-output interface signals, and provided for data transfer to the fuzzy controller. The PLC included two 16-channel analog input and output cards and eight 32-channel digital input and output cards. The CPU used 32-bit architecture for all arithmetic and comparison operations and an expanded register set. Figure 15.16 shows the schematic diagram of the developed fuzzy controller. Figure 15.17 shows the process layout of the prototype RO plant built at FAU research laboratories with feed intake from the Atlantic Ocean.

An Ion Mobility Spectrometer Mass Spectrometer

An ion mobility spectrometer consists of an ion-molecule reaction chamber, incorporating an ionization region, coupled to a drift region via a shutter grid. A schematic diagram is shown in Figure 1. The drift region contains a screen grid and an ion collector. A typical cell consists of metal guard rings, separated by insulators, connected to a resistance network with a high voltage attached to one end of the resistor chain, to produce a uniform electric field along the cell, usually of the order of a few hundred Vcm-1. Clean carrier gas is ionized by irradiation, usually with beta particles from a 63Ni radioactive source, to form positive and negative reactant ions and consequently RIPs. The ion-molecule chemistry can be altered by the introduction of a dopant chemical at

Ammonia Water Absorption Cycles

In the ammonia-water cycle, water acts as the absorbent and the ammonia-water solution acts as the refrigerant. Both the refrigerant and the absorbent boil in the generator, and the regeneration of strong absorbent is a fractional distillation process. Figure 38-24 shows a schematic diagram of

Methods for Large Scale Synthesis

In general, methods for the large-scale production of advanced materials by combustion synthesis consist of three main steps (a) preparation of the green mixture, (b) high-temperature synthesis, and (c) post-synthesis treatment. A schematic diagram of these steps is presented in Fig. 4. The first step is similar to the procedures commonly used in powder metallurgy, where the reactant powders are dried (e.g., under vacuum at 80 to 100 C), weighed into the appropriate amounts, and mixed (e.g., by ball mixing). For some applications, cold pressing of the green mixture is necessary, especially for the production of low-porosity or poreless materials. Typically, no plasticizer is used, and the density of the cold-pressed compacts varies from 40 to 80 of the theoretical density. The final procedure in sample preparation determines the type of product to be synthesized a powder product results from loose powder reactants, while sintered products are yielded from cold-pressed compacts....

The Electrodialytic Production of Sodium Methylate by Methanol Dissociation

Figure 7 Schematic diagram illustrating a continuous fermentation process for the production of itaconicacid without further addition of acids or bases using bipolar membranes. Figure 7 Schematic diagram illustrating a continuous fermentation process for the production of itaconicacid without further addition of acids or bases using bipolar membranes. Figure 8 Schematic diagram illustrating the electrodialytic production of sodium methanolate from methanol and sodium acetate in bipolar membranes containing a two-compartment cell unit. Figure 8 Schematic diagram illustrating the electrodialytic production of sodium methanolate from methanol and sodium acetate in bipolar membranes containing a two-compartment cell unit.

Components of Continuous Steel Strip Plating Lines

Figures 6, 7, 8, and 9 show schematic diagrams of continuous steel electroplating lines for tin, chromium, and zinc coatings. Figure 9 may be consulted in the following discussion of the general features of these lines. The line in Fig. 9 is also designed for painting over the metallic coated strip, which for economic reasons may become the trend, particularly for zinc and zinc alloy coating lines whose lower speeds can allow roll coating of the organic films. Fig. 6 Schematic diagram of a typical electrotinning line, using vertical plating cells. Source Ref 1 Fig. 6 Schematic diagram of a typical electrotinning line, using vertical plating cells. Source Ref 1 Fig. 7 Schematic diagram of a typical two-step chromium plating line, also called a tin-free steel line. Source Ref 1 Fig. 7 Schematic diagram of a typical two-step chromium plating line, also called a tin-free steel line. Source Ref 1 Fig. 8 Schematic diagram of a typical electrogalvanizing line with vertical plating cells....

8113 Runaround Systems

Figure 8.6 is the schematic diagram of a runaround system used to recover the heat of condensation from a chemical bath steam heater. In this case the bath is a highly corrosive liquid. A leak in the heater coils would cause the condensate to become contaminated and thus do damage to the boiler. The intermediate

51 Description of the moving wall apparatus

The moving wall uses a belt made of N-8 Sampla synthetic rubber that is placed flush with the inner top wall of the test section. The belt moves from the direction of the suction side of the stationary blades to the pressure side. This simulates the relative motion in a turbine where it is the rotation of the blades that causes the relative motion. The belt rotates on 3 aluminium rollers of diameter 75mm supported on bearings housed in an aluminium frame. There are two primary rollers and a tertiary roller one of the two primary rollers is driven by a 2kW 3-phase induction motor (also bolted to the frame) through a system of pitch pulleys. A tertiary roller with an adjustable axis of rotation is used to keep the belt tight and flat when moving in the windtunnel. The vertical position of the bearings supporting the tertiary roller can be changed by using screws to move each bearing housing independent of the other in a slot provided on the frame. This mechanism is used to prevent...

842 Gasto Gas Heat Exchangers Recuperators

A second common form for recuperators is called the tube-type or convective recuperator. As seen in the schematic diagram of a combined radiation and convective type recuperator in Figure 8.19, the hot gases are carried through a number of small-diameter parallel tubes, while the combustion air enters a shell surrounding the tubes and is heated as it passes over the outside of the tubes one or more times in directions normal to the tubes. If the tubes are baffled as shown so as to allow the air to pass over them twice, the heat exchanger is termed a two-pass convective recuperator if two baffles are used, a three-pass recuperator and so on. Although baffling increases the cost of manufacture and also the pressure drop in the air path, it also increases the effectiveness of heat exchange. Tube-type recuperators are generally more compact and have a higher effectiveness than do radiation recuperators, because of the larger effective heat-transfer area made possible through the use of...

Preparative ITP Apparatus

A dropwise fractionating method was developed utilizing a counterflow technique. The schematic diagram of the apparatus is shown in Figure 4(B). When the sample zone is pushed out from a T-branch, a spray effect is usually observed due to electrostatic forces. This can be a convenient interfacing technique but it disturbs dropwise fractionation. The electric spray and fluctuation of the drop rate due to electrostatic forces are suppressed by a very simple electrostatic device As shown in Figure 4(B), the exiting fraction is surrounded by a copper coil, which is connected to a nozzle. The fractions are collected directly into small test tubes on the fraction collector through the coil. By using this technique, complete recovery of the mobile components in the injected samples is possible with minimum risk of loss and contamination. It should be noted, however, that mixing of adjacent sample zones cannot be avoided. The average volume of one drop was ca. 5 L and the deviation was...

Absorption Cycle and Engine Driven Heat Pumps

To its driver and may be driven with any type of prime mover. Figure 36-25 shows a series of small-capacity gas-fired reciprocating engine-driven heat pumps applied in a manufacturing plant. In contrast to traditional electric-driven heat pump systems, these units can use heat recovered from the engine to meet peak heating requirements instead of relying upon inefficient electric resistance heat. Figure 36-26 is a schematic diagram of an engine-driven heat pump. Included is a heat exchanger to provide for domestic hot water heating and a gas-fired auxiliary heater.

Preparative OPLC Separations

Figure 6 Micropreparative ML-OPLC separations on analytical HPTLC plates. (A) Schematic diagram of cleanup procedure using fully online LD-OPLC (B) schematic diagram of fully online LD-OPLC for a large amount of a complex mixture. Figure 6 Micropreparative ML-OPLC separations on analytical HPTLC plates. (A) Schematic diagram of cleanup procedure using fully online LD-OPLC (B) schematic diagram of fully online LD-OPLC for a large amount of a complex mixture.

Effluent Recycling Pump

FIG. 7.35.9 Schematic diagram of two fluidized-bed reactors in series for biological wastewater treatment. (Reprinted, with permission, from E.T. Oppelt and J.M. Smith, 1981, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency research and current thinking on fluidised-bed biological treatment, in Biological fluidised bed treatment of water and waste water, edited by P.F. Cooper and B. Atkinson, Chichester Ellis Horwood Ltd., Publishers.)

851 Principle Of Holography

The capacity of plane holographic storage might be larger than 10b bits, while the string of bits arranged in a page memory has only 106 bits. Consequently, many page memories can be stored in a plane hologram. As mentioned previously, one may apply angular multiplexing technique to superimpose a number of holograms on the same plate. However, larger optics and higher laser power are required to cover the whole holographic plate at one time. It is more practical to record each page memory in a tiny subhologram. Subholograms form an array on the holographic plate. A laser beam deflector is able to select a specific subhologram. In other words, a page memory is retrieved by addressing the read beam to a selected subhologram using the deflector. Figure 8.7 depicts the schematic diagram for plane holographic storage. Needless to say, the object beam in the recording is also deflected accordingly to form the subhologram array on the plate.

Analytical OPLC Separations

Figure 4 Schematic diagram of long-distance OPLC (LD-OPLC). (A) Principle of the method (B) fully offline LD-OPLC using homolayers (C) fully online LD-OPLC using heterolayers. Figure 4 Schematic diagram of long-distance OPLC (LD-OPLC). (A) Principle of the method (B) fully offline LD-OPLC using homolayers (C) fully online LD-OPLC using heterolayers.

Diffusion in Liquids

Figure 4 Schematic diagram of the role of interfacial diffusion in liquid-liquid extraction. Each stagnant layer is about 10 2-10 4cm. In this depiction, the molecules diffusing through the liquid-liquid interface contain a moiety (x) with an affinity toward phase 2 and a moiety ( ) with an affinity toward phase 1. Figure 4 Schematic diagram of the role of interfacial diffusion in liquid-liquid extraction. Each stagnant layer is about 10 2-10 4cm. In this depiction, the molecules diffusing through the liquid-liquid interface contain a moiety (x) with an affinity toward phase 2 and a moiety ( ) with an affinity toward phase 1.

Diffusion in Solids

Figure 5 Schematic diagram of major physical chemical processes that may occur during the extraction of solutes from a solid sample particle. Figure 5 Schematic diagram of major physical chemical processes that may occur during the extraction of solutes from a solid sample particle.

Abstract

Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of the combined cell stacked module. The single combined cell consisted of four unit cells, and active electrode area of each unit cell was 182 cm2. A 2 kW class combined cell stacked module (182 cm2 X 4X 17) was examined. The each size of the electrolyte (3 mol Y2O3 partially stabilized ZrOa) was 150 mm X 200 mm X 0.2 mm'. A heat-resisting alloy (Inconel 600) was used for the separators. The separators were 350 mm X 350 mm in size. A The schematic diagram of the combined cell stacked module

08 06 04

Fig. 3.7 Schematic diagram of MOCVD apparatus Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of source materials and mass flow controllers. The growth sequence is controlled by a computer. Fig. 3.7 Schematic diagram of MOCVD apparatus Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of source materials and mass flow controllers. The growth sequence is controlled by a computer.

Figure

By adding an inlet and a nozzle to the gas generator, a turbojet engine can be constructed. A schematic diagram of a simple turbojet is shown in Fig. 1-4 , and a turbojet with afterburner is shown in Fig. 1-4 ). In the analysis of a turbojet engine, the major components are treated as sections. Also shown in Figs. 1-4a and 1-4b are the station numbers for each section.

Level Gauges

FIG. 7.6.22 Schematic diagram showing the clean and cold air output of the repeater repeating the vapor pressure (Pv) in the tank. FIG. 7.6.22 Schematic diagram showing the clean and cold air output of the repeater repeating the vapor pressure (Pv) in the tank. FIG. 7.6.23 Schematic diagram that shows how the temperature compensated, extended-diaphragm-type, chemical seals protect the d p cell from plugging.

612 Reliability

FIGURE 6.28 Schematic diagram showing antireflection (AR) and high-reflection (HR) coatings on the facets of a semiconductor laser diode. FIGURE 6.28 Schematic diagram showing antireflection (AR) and high-reflection (HR) coatings on the facets of a semiconductor laser diode.

610 Laser Arrays

FIGURE 6.22 Schematic diagram for an oxide-defined stripe simple, uncoupled laser array. FIGURE 6.22 Schematic diagram for an oxide-defined stripe simple, uncoupled laser array. FIGURE 6.23 Schematic diagram for an oxide-defined stripe phase-locked laser array. FIGURE 6.23 Schematic diagram for an oxide-defined stripe phase-locked laser array.

44 Reaction Forces

Figure 4.5a is a schematic diagram of a crank slider mechanism comprising of a crank 1, a connecting rod 2, and a slider 3. The center of mass of link 1 is C1, the center of mass of link 2 is C2, and the center of mass of slider 3 is C. The mass of the crank is m1, the mass of the connecting road is m2, and the mass of the slider is m3. The moment of inertia of link i is ICi, i 1, 2, 3. Figure 4.5a is a schematic diagram of a crank slider mechanism comprising of a crank 1, a connecting rod 2, and a slider 3. The center of mass of link 1 is C1, the center of mass of link 2 is C2, and the center of mass of slider 3 is C. The mass of the crank is m1, the mass of the connecting road is m2, and the mass of the slider is m3. The moment of inertia of link i is ICi, i 1, 2, 3.

Temperature

Schematic diagram of modulus versus temperature for two materials A and B to be shaped in the rubbery phase in the temperature range Tt-T2. In this range the modulus of A is above a critical figure C above which atmospheric pressure is insufficient to shape sheet of a given thickness. Such material could therefore not be vacuum formed. The type B material would, however, present no problem on this score

Gas Dispersion

Figure 3 Schematic diagram of formation of bubbles in mechanical cells (after Grainger Allen, 1970 courtesy of Transactions of the Institute of Metallurgy, UK). Figure 3 Schematic diagram of formation of bubbles in mechanical cells (after Grainger Allen, 1970 courtesy of Transactions of the Institute of Metallurgy, UK).

Primary Treatment

FIG. 25-44 Schematic diagram of an aerated grit chamber. FIG. 25-44 Schematic diagram of an aerated grit chamber. FIG. 25-45 Schematic diagram of a circular sedimentation tank. FIG. 25-45 Schematic diagram of a circular sedimentation tank. FIG. 25-46 Schematic diagram of a rectangular sedimentation tank. FIG. 25-46 Schematic diagram of a rectangular sedimentation tank. Normally, chemical precipitation requires a rapid mixing system and a flocculation system ahead of the sedimentation tank. With a rectangular sedimentation tank, the rapid-mixer and flocculation units are added ahead of the tank. With a circular sedimentation tank the rapid-mixer and flocculation units are built into the tank. Schematic diagrams of chemical treatment systems are shown in Figs. 25-47 and 25-48. Rapid mixers are designed to provide 30-s retention at average flow with sufficient turbulence to mix the chemicals with the incoming wastewaters. The flocculation units are designed for slow mixing at 20-min...

Dorr Oliver Cells

Figure 9 Schematic diagram of a large Dorr-Oliver cell (courtesy of Dorr-Oliver, Sydney, Australia). Figure 9 Schematic diagram of a large Dorr-Oliver cell (courtesy of Dorr-Oliver, Sydney, Australia). Figure 9 shows a schematic diagram of a large Dorr-Oliver cell with a tank design.

3way Catalyst

Figure 17-42 shows a catalytic converter unit used for stationary reciprocating engine applications. The steel catalyst housing frame can be used with either three-way or oxidation catalyst systems. The catalyst element shown on top of the housing can be quickly removed and replaced. Figure 17-43 is a schematic diagram indicating the converter and sensor location in the exhaust gas flue.

82 Fel Theory

The FEL is conceptually quite simple, consisting only of an electron beam, a periodic pump field, and the radiation field. The most common pump field is a static periodic magnetic field called a wiggler, but any field capable of producing a transverse electron oscillation could in principle be used. A typical configuration of the FEL is illustrated in the simple schematic diagram of Fig. 8.2. The wiggler field is perpendicular to the FEL axis, so electrons injected into the wiggler along the axis begin to oscillate because of the v x B force. The radiation from the oscillating electrons combines with the wiggler field to produce a beat wave (referred to as the ponderomotive potential), which tends to axially bunch the electrons. The bunching caused by the ponderomotive potential provides the coherence that distinguishes the FEL from ordinary synchrotron light sources.

Implementation

Figure 1 Schematic diagram of a large scale preparative GC. 1, Chromatographic column 2, detector 3, valves for trap selection 4, condensers 5, gas-liquid separators 6, fraction collectors 7, recycled fraction pump 8, carrier gas cleaner 9, compressor 10, carrier gas pre-heater 11, injector 12, feed vaporizer 13, feed reservoir 14, automation.

Process Description

A schematic diagram of a DAF process for wastewater treatment is shown in Figure 1. Its essential elements are a flocculation tank, a flotation tank, an air compressor, an air saturator, a recycling pump and a hy-drosweep system. The wastewater is pumped to the flocculation tank after being treated with coagu-lant flocculent agents such as aluminium sulfate. A portion of the clarified effluent is recycled for pressurization. Compressed air is introduced into the discharge stream of the recycle pump, and the water is saturated with air at high pressure. The pressurized water stream is introduced to the flotation tank through nozzles, where fine bubbles (20-100 im) in diameter are formed. The bubbles attach themselves to suspended solid particles, causing the agglomerates to float to the surface of the tank. The float can be mechanically skimmed from the surface, and the clarified water is taken from the bottom of the flotation tank.

Fabric Filters

Fabric filters (also called baghouses) are a state-of-the-art particulate control technology with a consistent 99 removal efficiency over the range of particulate sizes. Figure 10.9.15 shows a schematic diagram of a scrubber followed by a baghouse for particulate control. Particulates as small as 0.1 microns can be captured. The accumulated partic-ulates or fly ash fall into a hopper when the fabric filters are cleaned, and this ash must be disposed of appropriately. Table 10.9.5 lists the advantages and disadvantages of fabric filter systems.

Hydrocyclones

Figure 5 Schematic diagram of a hydrocyclone. 1, Feed 2, apex nozzle 3, grit pot 4, outlet, solids 5, valve 6, discharge, clarified liquid. Reproduced with permission from Westfalia Separator AG, Oelde, Germany. Figure 5 Schematic diagram of a hydrocyclone. 1, Feed 2, apex nozzle 3, grit pot 4, outlet, solids 5, valve 6, discharge, clarified liquid. Reproduced with permission from Westfalia Separator AG, Oelde, Germany.

847Waste Heat Boilers

A more recently designed waste-heat boiler utilizes a finned-tube bundle for the evaporator, an external drum, and forced recirculation of the feedwater. The design, which is modular, makes for a compact unit with high boiler efficiency. Additional tube bundles can be added for superheating the steam and for preheating the feedwater. The degree of superheat which can be achieved is limited by the waste-heat temperature. The salient features of the boiler are shown on the schematic diagram in Figure 8.30.

PLCs and PCs

When PLCs were introduced over 30 years ago, relay ladder logic (RLL) was the standard programming language. Ladder diagrams identify the order of operation of devices. The logic can be rewired by programming on the CRT display and tested, without any physical rewiring of the banks of relays. The displays show a ladder diagram with contacts, coils and circuit connection very similar to a schematic diagram. RLL was not designed to support a wide range of control functions.

Pt APr APc 686

Schematic diagram of the compartments in a reverse-gas baghouse illustrating the flue gas and cleaning air flows during the various cycles of operation. (Source Bustard, C. J. et al., Fabric Filters for the Electric Utility Industry, Vol. 1, General Concepts, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, 1988.) FIGURE 6-20. Schematic diagram of the compartments in a reverse-gas baghouse illustrating the flue gas and cleaning air flows during the various cycles of operation. (Source Bustard, C. J. et al., Fabric Filters for the Electric Utility Industry, Vol. 1, General Concepts, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, 1988.)

244 Implementation

A schematic diagram of the architecture is shown in the Figure 24.3. The first web service allows the user to browse through and select any of the registered data sources. The second web service transforms the selected data source into a PLCS-XML compatible file. This web service maps the proprietary data model of the source application onto the PLCS standard data model using XSLT. The knowledge of the data mapping is encapsulated in the XSLT files and therefore easy to change and adapt for any future needs. The output XML is validated against the PLCS schema before being used as the data source for the Product Information Explorer application.

92The VAAC Harrier

Figure 9.1 shows a schematic diagram of the aircraft. On a typical approach to landing the pilot will attempt to maintain a steady flight path (GAMMAD) while decelerating to the hover alongside the ship. To do this he has to alternately move the nozzle and throttle levers with his left hand while stabilising the aircraft in pitch with his right hand. Movements to nozzle and throttle couple into pitch requiring compensation from the stick. The objective of the experimental control law is to take care of this coupling and give the pilot two primary commands, namely speed demand and flight-path demand. A control law with this strategy is called a two-inceptor law.

213 249 232

Fig. 9.20 Schematic diagram of a polarization-multiplexed 20-Gb sNRZ transmission system with an automatic polarization demultiplexer, comprising a fast polarization controller and a conventional polarization splitter-combiner (PolSplit). Fig. 9.20 Schematic diagram of a polarization-multiplexed 20-Gb sNRZ transmission system with an automatic polarization demultiplexer, comprising a fast polarization controller and a conventional polarization splitter-combiner (PolSplit).

Heater

The UOP CyclesorbSM is another adsorptive separation process with semicontinuous recycle. It utilizes a series of chromatographic columns to separate fructose from glucose. A series of internal recycle streams of impure and dilute portions of the chromatograph are used to improve the efficiency Gerhold, U.S. Patent numbers 4,402,832, 1983 and 4,478,721, 1984 . A schematic diagram of a six-vessel UOP Cyclesorb process is shown in Fig. 16-58 Gembicki et al., gen. refs., p. 595 . The process has four external streams and four internal recycles Dilute raffinate and impure extract are like displacement steps and impure raffinate and dilute extract are recycled from the bottom of an adsorber to its top. Feed and desorbent are fed to the top of each column in a predetermined sequence. The switching of the feed and desorbent are accomplished by the same rotary valve used for Sorbex switching (see hereafter). A chromatographic profile is established in each column that is moving from top to...

Flotation Chemistry

Figure 2 Schematic diagram of an in situ spectroelectrochemical cell suitable for studying sulfide flotation chemistry. Pushing a movable sulfide mineral working electrode against the CaF2 window with a screw type of mechanics ensures not only elimination of bulk water films to increase the sensitivity of infrared spectroscopy, but also reproducible positioning of the electrode (after each electrode polarization) for quantitative analysis. The use of polarized infrared radiation in external reflectance mode allows identification of molecular orientation. Figure 2 Schematic diagram of an in situ spectroelectrochemical cell suitable for studying sulfide flotation chemistry. Pushing a movable sulfide mineral working electrode against the CaF2 window with a screw type of mechanics ensures not only elimination of bulk water films to increase the sensitivity of infrared spectroscopy, but also reproducible positioning of the electrode (after each electrode polarization) for quantitative...

5 Control Equipment

Coordinate with the region's electronics technician to determine the optimum controller cabinet location and the cabinet door orientation. The controller cabinet is positioned to provide maintenance personnel access. At this location, a clear view of the intersection is desirable. Avoid placing the controller at locations where it might block the view of approaching traffic for a motorist turning right on red. Avoid locating the controller where flooding might occur or where the cabinet might be hit by errant vehicles. If possible, position the controller where it will not be affected by future highway construction.

Hydrodynamic Zones

Figure 1 Schematic diagram of a mechanical flotation cell. 1, Discharge box 2, concentrate launders 3, feed box 4, cell lip 5, bearing shaft 6, drive pulley with guard 7, three-phase induction motor 8, air inlet pipe with control valve 9, concentrate launder discharge point 10, impeller shaft 11, tailings discharge point, 12, base support for the cell tank. Figure 1 Schematic diagram of a mechanical flotation cell. 1, Discharge box 2, concentrate launders 3, feed box 4, cell lip 5, bearing shaft 6, drive pulley with guard 7, three-phase induction motor 8, air inlet pipe with control valve 9, concentrate launder discharge point 10, impeller shaft 11, tailings discharge point, 12, base support for the cell tank.

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