3411 Nonionising radiation

There are several forms of non-ionising electromagnetic radiation that may be encountered in industry16,17. They differ from y and X-rays in that they are of longer wavelength (lower energy) and do not cause ionisation in matter. They are ultraviolet (a few tens of nanometres (nm) to 400 nm wavelength), visible (400 to 700 nm) and infrared (700 nm to 1 mm) radiations in the optical region, and microwave and radiofrequency radiations and electric and magnetic fields. The ability of radiation...

548 Control of water pollution

Industrial activities can produce a large amount of water pollution. The Water Industries Act, 199111, sets out the provisions regarding the duties of water and sewage undertakings to set consent limits for the discharge of trade effluent. Discharges of industrial wastewater to a sewer must comply with consent limits set by the sewage undertaking. These limits are set to protect the sewage works, the drains and its environment, and also the river into which the final treated effluent is...

232 Organisation structure models

An overall management structure needs to be established in order to achieve successful health and safety performance and the management of risks. An HSE guidance booklet2 recommends a cohesive management process. An international health and safety management standard, ISO 18001, is in preparation and which follows the general structure of the quality standard3 and the environment standard4. An existing UK standard5 is a precursor which offers a scheme for integrating the elements of the...

3510 Vibration

Vibration can cause problems to the human body, machines and structures, as well as producing high noise levels. Vibration can manifest itself as a particle displacement, velocity or acceleration. It is more commonly defined as an acceleration and may be measured using an accelerometer. There are many types of accelerometer and associated instrumentation available which can give an analogue or digital readout or can be fed into a computerised analysis system. As with sound, the vibration...

Law of contract

A contract is an agreement between two or more parties and to be legally enforceable it requires certain basic ingredients. It must be certain in its wording and consist of an offer made by one party which must be accepted unconditionally by the other (Scammell v. Ouston1 Carlill v. Carbolic Smoke Ball Co.2). This does not prevent negotiations taking place and alterations being made by both parties during the early stages of the discussions, but in its final stage there must be complete and...

441 Alternating and direct currents 4411 Alternating current

An alternating current (ac) is induced in a conductor rotating in a magnetic field. The value of the current and its direction of flow in the conductor depends upon the relative position of the conductor to the magnetic flux. During one revolution of the conductor the induced current will increase from zero to maximum value (positive), back to zero, then to maximum value in the opposite direction (negative) and, finally, back to zero again having completed one cycle. A graph plotted to show the...

3911 Signs and signals

Signs and signals are a vital means of passing information where verbal contact is not possible or reasonable. The signs, generally, in the form of posters, warnings, etc., are passive while signals, usually by hand or light, are dynamic. It is important that those who need to read signs know their correct meaning. In the passing of operational information by hand signals, such as in the use of cranes, it is important that both the signaller and the receiver (crane driver, etc.) use the same...

1118 Safety legislation today

1.1.18.1 Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 In 1970 the Robens Committee was set up to review the provision made for the safety and health of persons in the course of their employment. At that time safety requirements were contained in a variety of enactments (as the list of relevant statutory provisions in schedule 1 of HSW indicates). An estimated five million employees had no statutory protection. Protection was uneven. Administration was diverse and enforcement powers were considered...

479 Plant and process design

The chemical manufacturing process should be operated and maintained in a safe manner. This presumes that the design of the plant is safe. To design a plant and operating process that will be safe requires knowledge of the chemical process and its limiting parameters. The design of the plant should consider not only matters concerned with safety, but also health, the environment, fire, and its effect on neighbours. Once the plant has been installed, regular checks should be carried out to...

174 Investigation negotiation and the quantum of damage

Once a claim has been intimated by an injured person or by a solicitor on his behalf the insurer undertakes a detailed investigation into the circumstances of any accident prior to taking any decision regarding liability. Even before this stage is reached it is incumbent upon the insured to notify the insurer of any accident which may be the subject of indemnity under the policy. Some cases, for example fatal accidents, are serious enough to warrant immediate investigation to obviate the...

383 Ancient Egyptians and all that a brief history of ergonomics

This section aims to put flesh on these definitions by giving some early practical examples of ergonomic issues and a brief outline of the development of the science. The formal science of ergonomics may be relatively new but ergonomic issues have been around as long as humans. One of the earliest examples dates from over 10000 years ago. Studies5 on the female skeletons of Neolithic women who lived in what is now Syria showed specific deformities. These have been attributed to long hours spent...

462 Safe working in the industry

In considering safe working and accident prevention in the construction industry, this chapter will follow broadly the progression of a construction operation. All stages should be adequately planned making allowance for the incorporation of safe systems of work. Planning has been the province of the main contractor but with the coming into effect of the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 19944 (CDM) this responsibility has been clarified. Under these Regulations the client has an...

274 Individual behaviour in the face of danger

Hale and Glendon6 combined the insights from the information-processing model with the theories of the three levels of functioning14,17 and other sources18, into a model of individual behaviour in the face of danger (Figure 2.7.8). Their model allows us to discuss a number of practical issues of how to influence human safety behaviour, e.g. through task design or training. Danger is always present in the work situation (as in all other situations). The only question is how great is the danger...

422 Basic fire technology

Fire, or combustion, is a chemical reaction in which a substance reacts with the oxygen in the air and emits heat and light. It is a particular example of the more general process known as oxidation. For combustion to occur, three things need to be present - oxygen (usually from the air) a fuel which can either be a liquid, a gas or a solid Sources can be open flame, hot surfaces, sparks, arcs, the sun, friction, cheminai action or compressio Approximatley 16 required for combustion. Normal air...

414 Physical properties

All matter, whether solid, liquid or gas, exhibits properties that follow patterns that have been determined experimentally and are well established and proven. This section looks at some of the factors that influence the state of matter in its various forms. Temperature is a measure of the hotness of matter determined in relation to fixed hotness points of melting ice and boiling water. Two scales are universally accepted, the Celsius (or Centigrade) scale which is based on a scale of 100...

539 Conclusion

Over the last ten years there have been significant developments in the area of environmental management as Government and business work to drive activities towards sustainable waste management practices. Success in meeting this vision requires the implementation of different facets such as regulatory obligations, market based benefits (economic, fiscal or voluntary) and Government incentives as set out below. Legislators have introduced a large number of environmental laws to control the...

183 Occupiers Liability Acts 1957 and 1984

The 1957 Act defines the duty owed by the occupiers of premises to all persons lawfully on the premises in respect of 'Dangers due to the state of the premises or to things done or omitted to be done on them. Section 1(i).' The liability is not confined to buildings and has been held to include, for example, that of the main contractors retaining general control over a tunnel being constructed - Bunker v. Charles Brand & Son Limited9. Section 2 defines the standard of care, owed by the...

365 Assessment of performance of ventilation systems

In addition to the testing of the airborne concentrations of pollutants, it is necessary, and indeed is a requirement of COSHH, to check airflows and pressures created in a ventilation system to ensure that it is working to its designed performance by measuring 2 Air volume flow rates in various places in the system. 3 The pressure losses across filters and other fittings and the pressures developed by fans. The design value of these items should be specified by the maker of the equipment....

227 Accident prevention legal humanitarian and economic reasons for action

In order to get action taken in the field of accident prevention, safety advisers have the three fundamental lines of attack on which to base their strategies for generating and maintaining management activity in this area. These three reasons for accident prevention make use of the legal, humanitarian and economic arguments respectively. An optimum accident prevention strategy for a particular organisation would involve a combination of the three, because they are interrelated and probably...

436 Pressure systems

Pressure systems refer to any system of pipes, vessels, valves or other equipment for containing or transferring gases and liquids at high pressure. However, as a result of moves to comply with EU directives, new legislation in respect of pressure systems has polarised into two discrete areas, manufacture of systems and their use. The earlier Pressure Systems and Transportable Gas Containers Regulations 1989 have been revoked and requirements concerning transportable gas containers have been...

456 Local exhaust ventilation

Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) equipment is intended to control mechanically the emission of contaminants such as dust and fumes that are given off during a manufacturing process or in a chemical laboratory. Normally this is done as close to the point of emission as possible using a stream of air to remove the airborne particulate matter and transport it to where it can be safely collected for ultimate disposal. The physical layout and setting of LEV equipment is critical for it to work...

359 Noise control techniques

Noise Control The Receiver

Before considering methods of noise control, it is important to remember that the noise at any point may be due to more than one source and that additionally it may be aggravated by noise reflected from walls (reverberant noise) as well as the noise radiated directly from the source. With any noise problems there are the three distinct elements shown in Figure 3.5.9 - source, path and receiver. Having identified the nature and magnitude of any noise problem, the essential elements of a noise...

289 Conclusion

The experience of many established companies is reflected in Figure Accidents have been decreasing over the last fifty years but are tending to reach a trough. In early post-war years the emphasis remained on physical safeguarding. This gave way to the systems-of-work approaches in the 1970s which continues today in the form of risk assessments. The behaviour-based approach is becoming increasingly important as a technique to improve safety at work for two reasons. First, the other approaches...

169 Consumer redress

Up until 1973 going to court in pursuance of a consumer claim could be a daunting and expensive business. It was then that a small claims or arbitration procedure was set up which operated through the County Court. Any claim within the County Court jurisdiction can be referred on application to an arbitration heard by the District or County Court judge or even by an outside arbitrator. Any such arbitration has the effect of a full County Court judgment, though it is usually heard in private by...

119 Judicial precedent

Previous court decisions are looked to for guidance. English law has developed a strong doctrine of judicial precedent (sometimes referred to as stare decisis - let the decision stand). Some decisions (precedents) must be followed in a subsequent case. Other precedents are only persuasive. To operate the doctrine of judicial precedent it is necessary to know 1 the legal principle of a judgement, and 2 when a decision is binding and when persuasive. Higher courts bind lower courts, and superior...

171 Workmens compensation and the State insurance scheme

The first Workmen's Compensation Act was passed in 1897 (eventually consolidated in the Workmen's Compensation Act 1925) and, as an alternative to a workman's rights at common law, imposed on the employer an obligation to pay compensation automatically in the event of a workman sustaining an accident in the course of his employment. There was no requirement of fault, the legislation being introduced to provide compensation where the workman was injured in purely accidental circumstances with no...

466 Welfare facilities

Under the Construction (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1996 every contractor or employer has a duty to provide, or ensure there is provided, certain health and welfare facilities for his own employees who must have proper access to them. Because a number of contractors may be working on the site some of the facilities may be shared or alternatively arrangements may be made by the contractor to use the facilities offered by adjacent premises. Such arrangements should be agreed in...

377 Factors affecting the quality of lighting

The eye has the faculty of adjusting itself to various conditions and to discriminating between detail and objects. This visual capacity takes time to adjust to changing conditions as, for example, when leaving a brightly lit workroom for a darkened passage. Sudden changes of illuminance and excessive contrast between bright and dark areas of a workplace should be avoided. A recent problem, resulting from the introduction of word-processors and other equipment using vdts, is the effect on eye...

387 Workrelated upper limb disorders WRULD 3871 Background

In October 1993 High Court Judge John Prosser dismissed a claim for industrial injury. Reuters journalist Rafiq Mughal23 claimed to have contracted repetitive strain injury (RSI) while manning the Reuters Equities Desk. In dismissing the case, Judge Prosser said that 'RSI has no place in the medical textbooks'. He went on to refer to 'eggshell personalities who needed to get a grip on themselves'. Which was an unfortunate remark because if you have RSI it is extremely difficult to get a grip on...

2611 Conclusion

Safety legislation has been on the statute book for many years but the development of safety management as a subject is a recent innovation. It is now recognised that the levels of safety expected by employees and the general public cannot be achieved without utilising safety management strategies. So much has been written about the subject that it is sometimes forgotten that conventional management techniques are just as applicable to safety as to any other aspect of business. In particular...

426 Portable firefighting equipment

Dry Powder Fire Extinguisher Diagram

Portable fire extinguishers are intended to be used by individuals in the early stages of a fire. They are restricted in weight to be manageable and should be mounted so as to be easily accessible. Portable extinguishers should comply with BS EN 36, which stipulates that the body of all extinguishers will be red. However BS 78637 qualifies BS EN 3 and allows a coloured panel to be fixed to an extinguisher using the UK colour coding system to indicate the contents. This panel must be on or above...

172 Employers liability insurance

Since 1 January 1972 it has been compulsory for employers to insure against their liability to pay damages for bodily injury or disease sustained by their employees arising out of and in the course of their employment. This was enacted by s.1(1) of the Employer's Liability (Compulsory Insurance) Act 1969 and failure to comply with the provisions of the Act by an employer renders him guilty of an offence and liable to summary conviction - s.5. The Act contains a definition of the term 'employee'...

1813No fault liability system

Over the years the possibility of compensation being paid to victims of accidents irrespective of responsibility has been discussed and canvassed but not adopted. The attraction of such a system lies in the removal of the conflict between employer and employee over liability for the payment of damages and the consequent expense in time spent by the employer in detailed assessment of fault and in costs. However, such schemes still lead to dispute over the entitlement to compensation or the...

118The courts

1.1.8.1 First instance appellate A court may have first instance jurisdiction, which means that it hears cases for the first time it may have appellate jurisdiction which means that a case is heard on appeal or a court may have both. Inferior courts are limited in their powers to local jurisdiction, in the seriousness of the cases tried, in the sanctions they may order, and, in England, in the ability to punish for contempt. In England the superior courts are the House of Lords, the judicial...

2415 Loss control profiling

General aspects of loss control are discussed in section 1.4. Loss control profiling is one of the major evaluation and control techniques associated with loss control management. The technique of profiling has formed the basis for a number of proprietary auditing systems such as International Safety Rating System (ISRS), Complete Health and Safety Evaluation (CHASE) and Coursafe. Between 1968 and 1971, Bird21,22 designed a loss control profile to quantify management's efforts in this area. He...

454 Lifting equipment

The range of what has generically become known as lifting and handling equipment has expanded over the years in both scope and sophistication, with many innovative designs now being used not only in industry but in a wide spectrum of applications across the whole field of employment. Because of the very nature of this type of plant, together with its versatility, legislative controls aimed at ensuring its safe use have been developed in a fragmented manner. However, the legislative requirements...

1112 Employment Tribunals

Industrial Tribunals, now called Employment Tribunals, were set up in 1964 to deal with matters arising under the Industrial Training Act of that year. Now they have statutory jurisdiction in a range of employment matters, such as unfair dismissal, redundancy payments, equal pay, sex and race discrimination and claims for breach of contract of employment. Such jurisdiction does not include a claim in respect of personal injuries25. In the context of HSW they hear appeals against prohibition and...

145 Specialised legislation affecting occupational safety advisers

The responsibility of occupiers of land to those who enter the premises is to be found in the Occupier's Liability Acts of 1957 and 1984. The 1957 Act covers both tortious and contractual liability. The basic obligation is that the occupier owes a common duty of care to see that the premises are reasonably safe for the purpose for which the visitor has been permitted to enter (s.2). It is possible, of course, for any contract that may exist between the occupier and the visitor to state a higher...

4215 Fire terminology

An increasing wide range of fire terminology is now being used and it is important to have a basic understanding of the most frequently used terms. This is important in discussions with Fire Prevention Officers to ensure there is no misunderstanding. Some of the more commonly used terms are listed below. Accommodation stairway is a stairway provided for the convenience of occupants and is separate from those required for means of escape purposes. Active fire protection are measures to contain...

241 Risk identification assessment and control

As discussed in section 2.2.2.2, the risk from a hazard is the likelihood that it will cause harm in the actual circumstances in which it exists. Essentially, the technique of risk management involves 3 control (elimination or reduction). Within the workplace, operational management at all levels has a responsibility to identify, evaluate and control risks that are likely to result in injury, damage or loss. Part of these responsibilities should involve implementation of a regular programme of...

433 Safeguarding techniques

In new machines, guards should be designed in as an inherent part of the machine while in existing machines any added guards should be designed to provide the necessary protection while allowing the machine to be operated with the minimum of disruption. There is a wide range of types of guards and guarding techniques on which a designer can draw and these are outlined in EN standards12,13 and in Ridley and Pearce31 with design requirements specified in BS EN 9534. The use of the word 'guard'...

4715 Conclusions

This chapter has summarised some of the health, safety and environmental problems posed by the use of chemicals. A systematic review has been applied in an attempt to clarify the issues and facilitate an understanding of legislative requirements and good practices. Those with responsibilities for handling and using chemicals should study the relevant laws and guidance to ensure that their areas of responsibility meet the highest standards. Management commitment, leadership and setting a good...

427 Fixed firefighting equipment

Diagrams Fall Protection Equipment

Fixed fire-fighting equipment is permanently fixed in a building and is designed to work automatically in the event of a fire. Essentially it comprises a system of fixed pipes with discharge heads or points for the extinguishing medium at predetermined positions. The positioning of the discharge heads is determined by the type of building, its contents, the fire risk and the type of extinguishant and is normally to standards developed by fire insurers. Once installed and commissioned fixed...

4413 Electrical equipment in flammable atmospheres 44131 Explosive and flammable atmospheres

The techniques to be adopted to prevent danger when using electrical equipment in the vicinity of potentially explosive or flammable atmospheres have changed over the years and present legal requirements are contained in regulation 6 of the EAW. 4.4.13.2 Construction of equipment for use in flammable or explosive atmospheres The construction of electrical equipment to be used where a flammable or explosive atmosphere is likely to occur must be such as to prevent ignition of that atmosphere. The...

522 Establishing an environmental management system

The requirements of environmental management systems are to establish and then maintain arrangements that cover all the relevant environmental issues, set in place suitable measures to control them, and get them verified by an external competent body. Six aspects to be covered in establishing an environmental management system are considered below. Top management of the organisation need to define the environmental policy so that it m Encompasses the nature, scale and environmental impacts of...

536 Waste management in practice

Most pollution incidents are avoidable and the costs for cleaning up a pollution incident can be very high. Careful planning of facilities and effective operational procedures can reduce the risk of a loss of containment and simple precautions can prevent such a loss becoming a pollution incident. This section covers the good practice and pollution prevention measures necessary to achieve compliance with legal requirements and minimise the likelihood of incidents. Waste management processes are...

276 Conclusion

This chapter has surveyed in broad sweeps a huge area of knowledge and study. It has only been able to do so to a limited depth. On each topic there are books written to take the interested reader further. The reference list and the list for further reading attempts to indicate some books to do this. It is hoped that the picture which has been painted here gives enough structure to show that behaviour is predictable and can be influenced and managed, but not without the willing acceptance and...

474 Risk assessments

As part of their efforts to ensure a safe working environment, employers are required by the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 MHSW 62 to make suitable and sufficient assessments of the health and safety risks arising from their operations as they may affect their employees and others such as contractors, visitors and members of the general public who may be impacted. The assessment should extend to include such aspects as the way in which the work is organised, safety of...

List of Cases

National Blood Authority amp Others, 26 March 2001 unreported , 133 Abouzaid v. Mothercare UK Ltd, 21 December 2000 unreported , 133 Ashdown v. Samuel Williams amp Sons 1957 1 All ER 35, 92 Ashington Piggeries Ltd v. Christopher Hill Ltd 1971 1 All ER 847, 91 Austin v. British Aircraft Corporation Ltd 1978 IRLR 332, 112 Baker v. T.E. Hopkins amp Sons Ltd 1959 1 WLR 966, 167 Balfour v. Balfour 1919 2 KB 571, 85 Ball v. Insurance Officer 1985 1 All ER 833, 142 Beale v. Taylor 1967...

459 Conclusion

This chapter has endeavoured to cover the principal statutory inspection requirements in the UK that are likely to be of concern to occupational safety advisers. Certain areas have not been covered, such as gasholders nor the slightly differing requirements in Eire, Northern Ireland, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. It should not be assumed that because there is no statutory requirement to periodically inspect a particular type of plant or machine, that it need not be so inspected....

1119 Principles developed by the courts 11191 Case law interpretation

Case law interpretation has had an adverse effect on some safety legislation. A notorious example is the fencing requirements for dangerous machinery then s. 14 FA , as illustrated by, for example, Close v. Steel Company of Wales72. With reluctance judges interpreted the statute so that s. 14 could not be used where parts of the machine or of the material being worked on have been ejected at a workman. This interpretation has now been remedied by reg. 12 3 of PUWER 1998 repeating reg. 12 3 of...