Calculation of float

By far the quickest way to calculate the float of a particular activity is to do it manually. In practice, one does not require to know the float of all activities at the same time. A list of floats is, therefore, unnecessary. The important point is that the float of a particular activity which is of immediate interest is obtainable quickly and accurately. Consider the string of activities in a simple construction process. This is shown in Figure 14.1 in Activity on Arrow (AoA) format and in...

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Drawn 8y SDB Date 03fl6 7 Prog No. 54 Project Cost Control Example Page 1 Programme Baseline Program Reference Progr s AB Weekly Update 4 Hom(j1 projec, Managema( t Sys< ems Reference Progr s AB Weekly Update 4 Hom(j1 projec, Managema( t Sys< ems Figure 30.24 Bar chart report showing current progress against original planned schedule Project Manhour and Cost Report Period Update Summary

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These are shown in the first four columns of Table 29.9. It is now possible to draw the Critical Path Network in either AoN format (Figure 29.12), AoA format (Figure 29.13) or as a Lester diagram (Figure 29.14). After analysing the network diagram, the Total Floats and Free Floats of the activities can be listed (Table 29.10). If income falls to 55 000K in years 2 and 3 Income K 65 000 55 000 55 000 100 000 100 000 Cumulative 65 000 120000 175 000 275 000 375 000 Cash flow chart Option 2a (with...

Scheduling the project

Once the project data has been completed the results can be calculated by using the scheduling facilities of Hornet Windmill. The most common analysis method is to perform a standard Time Schedule or Time Analysis for the entered tasks and logic links. Under this calculation the task start and finish dates - both early and late dates - are calculated based on the task durations and logic links or constraints between them. This is a very quick calculation and the displays are promptly updated to...

1 Similar items of equipment

Here the network shows a series of strings which collect together similar items of equipment, such as pumps, tanks, vessels, boilers, and roads. This is shown in Figure 21.1. O Excavate founds. Hardening Setpump motor O Excavate base paa tankbott. .- s. Figure 21.1 Similar items of equipment Figure 21.1 Similar items of equipment (a) Equipment items are quickly found (b) Interface with design network is easily established.

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The total time taken to perform these activities is 27.15 minutes. The total time taken to perform these activities is 27.15 minutes. The first question therefore is, have we any activity which is unnecessary Yes. We need not kiss the wife goodbye. But this only saves us 0.1 minute and the saving is of little benefit. Besides, it could have serious repercussions. The second question must therefore be, are there any activities which we can perform simultaneously Yes. We can clean our shoes while...

Time bound project

A scoreboard for a prestigious tennis tournament must be finished in time for the opening match, even if it costs more than anticipated and the display of some secondary information, such as the speed of the service, has to be abandoned. In other words, cost and performance may have to be sacrificed to meet the unalterable starting date of the tournament. (In practice, the increased cost may well be a matter of further negotiation and the temporarily delayed display can usually be added later...

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This is still a large overrun but it is considerably less than the 8750 produced by adding up the individual forecast final hours. Clearly, such a discrepancy of 5262 hours cannot be tolerated. The answer lies in examining the offending activities 1 and 2 and rewriting them if necessary. For example, if it is found that activities 1 and 2 required rework to such an extent that the original work was completely wasted (or dismantled) and the job had to be started again, it is sensible to rewrite...

4 Analytical

As the name implies, this is the most accurate estimating method, but it requires the project to be broken down into sections, subsections and finally individual components. Each component must then be given a cost value including both the material and labour content. The values, which are sometimes referred to as 'norms', are usually extracted from a database or company archives and must be individually updated or factored to reflect the present day political and environmental situation....

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One of the phenomena of a computer printout is the comparatively large number of activities with free float. Closer examination shows that the majority of these are in fact dummy activities. The reason for this is, of course, obvious, since, by definition, free float can only exist when more than one activity enters a node. As dummies nearly always enter a node with another (real) activity, they all tend to have free float. Unfortunately, no computer program exists which automatically transfers...

3 Centrifugal pump manufacture

The following network shows the stages required for manufacturing centrifugal pumps for the process industry. The company providing these pumps has no foundry, so the unmachined castings have to be bought in. Assuming that the drawings for the pump are complete and the assembly line set up, a large order for a certain range of pumps requires the following main operations 1 Order castings - bodies, impellers 2 Order raw materials for shafts, seal plates, etc. 3 Order seals, bearings, keys, bolts...

5 Stages of completion

If particular parts of the site have to be completed earlier than others (i.e. if the work has to be handed over to the client in well-defined stages), it is essential that each stage is programmed separately. There will, of course, be interfaces and links with preceding and succeeding stages, but within these boundaries the network should be self-contained. (a) Attention is drawn to activities requiring early completion (b) Predictions for completion of each stage are made more quickly (c)...

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Percentage - time curves Figure 27.10 Boiler No. 1. Percentage - time curves 1 Total manhours expended this week (W column) 2 Total manhours to date (A column) 3 Percentage complete of project ( column) 4 Total value hours to date (V column) Alternatively, the site returns can be processed by computer and the resulting printout of part of a project is shown in Figure 27.11. Whether the information is collected manually or electronically, the return can be made on a...

Summary of advantages

Comparing the weighting and value hour systems, the following advantages of the value hour system are immediately apparent 1 The value hours system requires only six columns against the weighting system's seven. 2 There is no need to carry out a preliminary time-consuming 'weighting' at the beginning of the job. 3 The value hours can be entered in many cases by inspection - i.e. there is no need to calculate them. The reader may wish to test the relative speed by carrying out both sets of...

Safety bound project

Apart from the obvious examples of public transport given previously, safety is a factor that is required by law and enshrined in the Health & Safety at Work Act. Not only must safe practices be built into every project, but constant monitoring is an essential element of a safety policy. To that extent it could be argued that all projects are safety bound, since if it became evident after an accident that safety was sacrificed for speed or profitability, some or all of the project...

Project definition

Many people and organizations have defined what a project is, or should be, but probably the most authoritative definition is that given in BS 6079 'Guide to Project Management'. 'A unique set of co-ordinated activities, with definite starting and finishing points, undertaken by an individual or organization to meet specific objectives within defined schedule, cost and performance parameters.' The next question that can be asked is 'Why does one need project management ' What is the difference...

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Phase A division of the project life cycle. Planned cost The estimated (anticipated) cost of a project. Precedence network A method of network programming in which the activities are written in the node boxes and connected by lines to show their Preceding event The beginning event of an activity. Printout See Output. Product Breakdown Structure (PBS) Hierarchical decomposition of a project into various levels of products. Program The set of instructions given to a computer. Programme A group of...

Project life cycles

Most, if not all, projects go through a life cycle which varies with the size and complexity of the project. On medium to large projects the life cycle will generally follow the pattern which has been set out in BS 6079. This is Basic ideas, business case, statement of requirements, scope Tests for technical, commercial and financial viability, technical studies, investment appraisal, DCF etc. Application for funds, stating risks, options, TCQ criteria Approvals, permits, conditions, project...

Project cost control

Entering the man-hours figures for the SMAC Project Cost Control as described in Chapter 27 is extremely straightforward and takes the minimum of input. The user can select the appropriate data grid display to show all the Figure 30.22 Task data grid showing cost control data columns Figure 30.22 Task data grid showing cost control data columns key cost control parameters on the main task data grid and bar chart display. On the display shown in Figure 30.22 the columns have been sized to...

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CEN Comite Europeen de Normalization General CIF Carriage, Insurance, Freight Procurement CM Configuration Management PM CPA Critical Path Analysis PM CPA Contract Price Adjustment Procurement CPI Cost Performance Index EVA CPM Critical Path Methods CPA CSCS Cost & Schedule Control System EVA DCF Discounted Cash Flow Finance DDP Delivery Duty Paid Procurement DIN Deutsche Industrie Normen General EVA Earned Value Analysis PM EVMS Earned Value Management System EVA FLAC Four Letter Acronym...

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Would simply restate the first activity as 'Cast Column and Strike Formwork, 6 days' (Figure 13.2). While this overcomes the drafting problem it may not be acceptable from a cost control point of view, especially if the network is geared to an EVA system (see Chapter 27). Furthermore the fact that the grid numbers were on the nodes meant that when it was necessary to move a string along one or more grid spaces, the relationship between the grid number and the activity changed. This could...

Project management plan

As soon as the project manager has received his brief or project instructions, he must produce a document which distils what is generally a vast amount of information into a concise, informative and well-organized form that can be distributed to all members of the project team and indeed all the stakeholders in the project. This document is called a project management plan (PMP), but is also sometimes just called a project plan, or in some organizations a coordination procedure. The PMP is one...

Turner 1993 Bibliography Project Management

Adair, J., Effective Leadership, PAN (1983) Ahuja, H.N., Construction Performance Control by Networks, Wiley (1976) Andersen, E.S., Grude, K.V. & Haug, Tor, Goal Directed Project Management, 2nd edn, Kogan Page (2002) Antill, J.M. & Woodhead, R., Critical Path Methods in Construction Practice, Wiley (1982) APM, Body of Knowledge, Association for Project Management (1996) APM, Planning Contracts for Successful Project Management, APM Group (1998) APM, Project Risk Assessment and...

Closeout report

Using the information recorded in the project diary and the various project status reports, the project manager must now prepare his project close-out report. This should discuss the degree of compliance with the original project brief (or business case) and acceptance criteria and highlight any important problems encountered together with the solutions adopted. Apart from giving a short history and post-implementation review of the project, the purpose of this document is to enable future...

Basic rules

Before proceeding further it may be prudent at this stage to list some very simple but basic rules for network presentation, which must be adhered to rigidly 1 Where the starting node of an activity is also the finishing node of one or more other activities, it means that all the activities with this finishing node must be completed before the activity starting from that node can be commenced. For example, in Figure 11.2, 1-3(A) and 2-3(B) must be completed before 3 -4(C) can be started. 2 Each...

Hornet Windmill

Hornet Windmill is the latest version of the range of Hornet Software for Project Management that has been developed steadily over the past 20 years by Claremont Controls Ltd. This software system is designed for use on PCs and provides a high performance project planning and control tool for use with virtually any type of project. In its early versions the product was designed for use on the character style DOS displays of the first personal computers. Now current versions of the system have...

Generic work breakdown structure

While such a breakdown into blocks is suitable for an engineering contract, a similar system can be used for any other type of project. By breaking the project down into discrete components or tasks, we create what is known as a work breakdown structure or WBS. The choice of tasks incorporated in the WBS is best made by the project team drawing on their combined experience or engaging in a brainstorming session. Once the main tasks have been decided upon, they can in turn can be broken down...