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Approximate Range of Coal Sulfur Content ( ) Source U.S. Energy Information Administration, U.S. Coal Reserves 1997 Update, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., February 1999. Source U.S. Energy Information Administration, U.S. Coal Reserves 1997 Update, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., February 1999....

Nh No N2o H 658

NOx Control in Pulverized Coal Combustion Technologies for control of NOZ emissions from pulverized coal-fired power plants can be divided into two groups (1) combustion modifications where the NOx production is reduced during the combustion process, and (2) flue gas treatment, which removes the NOx from flue gas following its formation. Sometimes the practice of injecting reducing agents to reduce NOx to molecular nitrogen (N2) is classified separately however, in this section it is included...

Brief History of Carbonization High Temperature

The carbonization of coal has its historical roots in the iron and steel industry. The ironmaking processes developed around the Mediterranean Sea and spread northward through Europe 33 . The Phoenicians, Celts, and Romans all helped spread ironmaking technology, and the Romans brought one of the ironmaking techniques as far north as Great Britain. Originally, charcoal produced from wood was the fuel used to melt the iron ore, and a tremendous amount of wood was needed for this industry. For...

Table A27

Emission Factors for SOx and NOx Compounds from Uncontrolled Anthracite Coal Combustorsa Emission Emission Emission Emission Stoker-fired FBC Pulverized coal aData from EPA, Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, AP-42, Fifth ed., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., January 1995. Tons are short tons. Units are pounds of pollutant per ton of coal burned. To convert from lb ton to kg Mg, multiply by 0.5. bS weight percent sulfur for...

Trace Elements

All coals contain small concentrations of trace elements. Trace elements enter the atmosphere through natural processes, and sources of trace elements include soil, seawater, and volcanic eruptions. Human activities, such as power generation and industrial and commercial sectors, also lead to emissions of some elements. Although these elements are present in small concentrations in the coal (i.e., parts per million, ppm, by weight), the large amount of coal burned annually mobilizes tons of...

The Potential of Coal to Reduce US Dependency on Imported Crude

Inexpensive crude oil contributes to the U.S. economic prosperity however, the increasing reliance upon imported crude oil makes the United States vulnerable to oil supply disruptions and threatens the nation's economic and energy security. As evidenced by the 1973 Arab oil embargo and the 1979 Iranian revolution, abrupt and prolonged losses of crude oil from the Persian Gulf region drastically affect the U.S. economy, increase unemployment, and boost inflation 23 . Even shorter periods of...

Air Contamination from Preparation Plants

Preparation of fine coal can cause air pollution if proper dust and gas removal equipment is not installed. The air effluent from a fine coal preparation plant consists of entrained dust, both coal and ash, and various gases, primarily consisting of products of coal combustion from thermal dryers 20 . Sources of particulates include thermal dryers, pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment, coal processing and conveying equipment, screening equipment, coal storage, coal transfer points, and coal...

Clean Coal Power Initiative CCPI

The second follow-on program to the CCT Program is the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI), which was initiated by President Bush in 2002 and is an innovative technology demonstration program that fosters more efficient clean coal technologies for use in existing and new power generation facilities in the United States 6 . Candidate technologies are demonstrated at a significant scale to ensure proof-of-operation prior to widespread commercialization. Technologies emerging from this program will...

50

A Short tons VOCs per year for ozone short tons CO per year for carbon monoxide. a Short tons VOCs per year for ozone short tons CO per year for carbon monoxide. 25 short tons per year are required to burn clean fuels or install advanced control technologies. The 1990 CAAAs also established similar programs for areas that do not meet federal health standards for carbon monoxide and PM10. Areas exceeding the standards for these pollutants are divided into moderate and serious classifications....

Pre Industrial Revolution

Documentation of air pollution begins as early as ancient Rome when the statesman Seneca complained about the stink, soot and heavy air in the city 1 . Coal usage increased in England during medieval times because coal became less expensive and wood became scarce, and air pollution problems intensified, particularly black smoke and fumes. It became so bad that in 1257 Queen Eleanor was driven from Nottingham Castle by the smoke and fumes rising from the city below 2 . In 1283 and 1288, there...

The Resurgence of Coal in Electric Power Generation

Fuel diversity for power generation is necessary for energy security, which is recognized by both industry and lawmakers. Tom Ridge, Secretary of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, was a supporter of energy security while serving as governor of Pennsylvania he led Pennsylvania toward competitive electricity markets and supported the development of new generating capacity in Pennsylvania with an emphasis on fuel diversity 27 . The first major coal plant to be built in Pennsylvania in 20...

Post Industrial Revolution

Two major air pollution health episodes raised awareness of the effect of pollution on human health and were instrumental in passage of the English Clean Air Act in the United Kingdom in 1956 and the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1970 (although federal air pollution control acts began to be passed in 1955, as discussed later in this chapter) 3,4 . These episodes occurred in Donora, Pennsylvania, in 1948 and in London, England, in 1952 and illustrated the fact that people will largely...

Toxecon

TOXECON configuration for mercury control in a coal-fired boiler. (From Eastman, M. L., Clean Coal Power Initiative, presented at the Clean Coal Power Conference, November 18, 2003.) electrical generation plants increasing the net generating capacity of units that burn high-moisture coal increasing the energy supply of units that burn high-moisture coal increasing the cost-effectiveness of the country's electrical generation industry improving the environment by reducing emissions...

03

C Recycle oil hydrogenation. d Small scale. Source Adapted from van Krevelen 1 Miller 50 HTI 51 Elliot 2 . c Recycle oil hydrogenation. d Small scale. Source Adapted from van Krevelen 1 Miller 50 HTI 51 Elliot 2 . ratio than petroleum 0.7 to > 1.2. Direct liquefaction transforms coal into liquid hydrocarbons by directly adding hydrogen to the coal. Examples of some of the operating parameters of the primary processes are summarized in Table 5-11 1,50 . The Bergius process was put into...

8RuT n M

Where M is the molecular weight of the gas, T is temperature (K), and Ru is the universal gas constant (8.31 x 103 m2 sec2 mol K). The drift velocity is used to determine collection efficiency using the Deutsch-Anderson equation where w is the drift velocity, A is the area of collection electrodes, and Q is the volumetric flow rate. The units of w, A, and Q must be consistent because the factor wA Q is dimensionless. The ratio A Q is often referred to as the specific collection area (SCA) and...

Origin of Coal

Coal is found in deposits called seams that originated through the accumulation of vegetation that has undergone physical and chemical changes. These changes include decaying of the vegetation, deposition and burying by sedimentation, compaction, and transformation of the plant remains into the organic rock found today. Coals differ throughout the world in the kinds of plant materials deposited (type of coal), in the degree of metamorphism or coalification (rank of coal), and in the range of...

Power Plant Improvement Initiative PPII

The success of the CCT Program serves as a model for other cooperative government industry programs aimed at introducing new technologies into the commercial marketplace. Two follow-up programs have been developed that build on the successes of the CCT Program the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII) and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). The PPII, established by the Department of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2001 (Public Law 106-291), is a...

Others

Combining sorbent injection for mercury control with other technologies for NOx and or SO x removal represents another multipollutant control option 98 . Many companies are exploring sorbent and chemical injection techniques that can remove mercury at reasonable costs, including Sorbent Technologies Corporation, ADA-Environmental Solutions, URS Corporation, EPRI, and Alstom Power universities such as the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center and Penn State...

Basic Coal Analysis

Prior to discussing the rank, type, grade, and classification systems of coal, a brief description of basic coal analyses, upon which classification schemes are based, is provided. These analyses do not yield any information on coal structure but do provide important information on coal behavior and are used in the marketing of coals. Three analyses are used in classifying coal, two of which are chemical analyses and one is a calorific determination. The chemical analyses include proximate and...

References

W., Coal 3rd ed. (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1993). 2. Elliot, M. A. (editor), Chemistry of Coal Utilization, Secondary Suppl. Vol. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1981). 3. Moore, E. S., Coal Its Properties, Analysis, Classification, Geology, Extraction, Uses, and Distribution (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1922), p. 124. 4. Kuehn, S. E., Power for the Industrial Age A Brief History of Boilers, Power Engineering, Vol. 100, No. 2, February 1996, pp. 5-19. 5. Landels, J....

Coking Processes

Early processes for the production of coke were similar to those employed for the production of wood charcoal. Bituminous coal was built up into piles and ignited in such a way that only the outside layers actually burned while the central portion was carbonized 2 . Piles, also called kilns, appeared for the first time in England in 1657 and spread from there to other European bituminous coal producing regions. Around 1850, half-open brick kilns (i.e., the Schaumburg kiln) were constructed from...

The Use of Coal in the Pre Industrial Revolution

The use of coal as an energy source has been known from ancient times, although it was a minor resource until the Industrial Revolution. The first mention of coal in European literature dates from the fourth century B.C. 1 however, scholars are certain that coal was first used in China as early as 1000 B.C. 2 . By 1000 A.D., coal was a primary fuel source in China, and its use was reported by the Venetian traveler Marco Polo in the thirteenth century 3,4 . The first documented use of coal in...

Low Temperature Carbonization

Low-temperature carbonization was originally developed to provide town gas for residential and street lighting and to manufacture a smokeless fuel for domestic and industrial heating. The by-product tars were economically important and were often essential feedstocks for the chemical industry or were refined to gasoline, heating oils, and lubricants 19 . Low-temperature carbonization evolved and was used extensively in industrialized European countries but was eventually abandoned after 1945 as...