8RuT n M

Where M is the molecular weight of the gas, T is temperature (K), and Ru is the universal gas constant (8.31 x 103 m2 sec2 mol K). The drift velocity is used to determine collection efficiency using the Deutsch-Anderson equation where w is the drift velocity, A is the area of collection electrodes, and Q is the volumetric flow rate. The units of w, A, and Q must be consistent because the factor wA Q is dimensionless. The ratio A Q is often referred to as the specific collection area (SCA) and...

Origin of Coal

Coal is found in deposits called seams that originated through the accumulation of vegetation that has undergone physical and chemical changes. These changes include decaying of the vegetation, deposition and burying by sedimentation, compaction, and transformation of the plant remains into the organic rock found today. Coals differ throughout the world in the kinds of plant materials deposited (type of coal), in the degree of metamorphism or coalification (rank of coal), and in the range of...

Power Plant Improvement Initiative PPII

The success of the CCT Program serves as a model for other cooperative government industry programs aimed at introducing new technologies into the commercial marketplace. Two follow-up programs have been developed that build on the successes of the CCT Program the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII) and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). The PPII, established by the Department of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2001 (Public Law 106-291), is a...

Others

Combining sorbent injection for mercury control with other technologies for NOx and or SO x removal represents another multipollutant control option 98 . Many companies are exploring sorbent and chemical injection techniques that can remove mercury at reasonable costs, including Sorbent Technologies Corporation, ADA-Environmental Solutions, URS Corporation, EPRI, and Alstom Power universities such as the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center and Penn State...

Basic Coal Analysis

Prior to discussing the rank, type, grade, and classification systems of coal, a brief description of basic coal analyses, upon which classification schemes are based, is provided. These analyses do not yield any information on coal structure but do provide important information on coal behavior and are used in the marketing of coals. Three analyses are used in classifying coal, two of which are chemical analyses and one is a calorific determination. The chemical analyses include proximate and...

References

W., Coal 3rd ed. (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1993). 2. Elliot, M. A. (editor), Chemistry of Coal Utilization, Secondary Suppl. Vol. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1981). 3. Moore, E. S., Coal Its Properties, Analysis, Classification, Geology, Extraction, Uses, and Distribution (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1922), p. 124. 4. Kuehn, S. E., Power for the Industrial Age A Brief History of Boilers, Power Engineering, Vol. 100, No. 2, February 1996, pp. 5-19. 5. Landels, J....

Coking Processes

Early processes for the production of coke were similar to those employed for the production of wood charcoal. Bituminous coal was built up into piles and ignited in such a way that only the outside layers actually burned while the central portion was carbonized 2 . Piles, also called kilns, appeared for the first time in England in 1657 and spread from there to other European bituminous coal producing regions. Around 1850, half-open brick kilns (i.e., the Schaumburg kiln) were constructed from...

The Use of Coal in the Pre Industrial Revolution

The use of coal as an energy source has been known from ancient times, although it was a minor resource until the Industrial Revolution. The first mention of coal in European literature dates from the fourth century B.C. 1 however, scholars are certain that coal was first used in China as early as 1000 B.C. 2 . By 1000 A.D., coal was a primary fuel source in China, and its use was reported by the Venetian traveler Marco Polo in the thirteenth century 3,4 . The first documented use of coal in...

Info

The participants listed in Table 7-2 are the primary non-federal government companies, although each project had several supporting team members 4 . The projects are listed in Table 7-2 by four basic market sectors. A synopsis of the projects is provided in the following text, with an emphasis on emissions achievements. The initial thrust of the CCT Program addressed acid rain, and 18 projects have been completed involving SO2 and NOZ control for coal-fired boilers. The...

Low Temperature Carbonization

Low-temperature carbonization was originally developed to provide town gas for residential and street lighting and to manufacture a smokeless fuel for domestic and industrial heating. The by-product tars were economically important and were often essential feedstocks for the chemical industry or were refined to gasoline, heating oils, and lubricants 19 . Low-temperature carbonization evolved and was used extensively in industrialized European countries but was eventually abandoned after 1945 as...