Hydroformylation Reaction

Hydroformylation of olefins (Oxo reaction) produces aldehydes with one more carbon than the reacting olefin. For example, when ethylene is used, propionaldehyde is produced. This reaction is especially important for the production of higher aldehydes that are further hydrogenated to the corresponding alcohols. The reaction is catalyzed with cobalt or rhodium complexes. Olefins with terminal double bonds are more reactive and produce aldehydes which are hydrogenated to the corresponding primary...

Vinyl Chloride CH2CHCl

Vinyl chloride is a reactive gas soluble in alcohol but slightly soluble in water. It is the most important vinyl monomer in the polymer industry. The U.S. production of vinyl chloride, the 16th highest-volume chemical, was approximately 14.8 billion pounds in 1994. Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) was originally produced by the reaction of hydrochloric acid and acetylene in the presence of HgCl2 catalyst. The reaction is straightforward and proceeds with high conversion (96 on acetylene) However,...

Chemicals Based on Methane

As mentioned in Chapter 2, methane is a one-carbon paraffinic hydrocarbon that is not very reactive under normal conditions. Only a few chemicals can be produced directly from methane under relatively severe conditions. Chlorination of methane is only possible by thermal or photochemical initiation. Methane can be partially oxidized with a limited amount of oxygen or in presence of steam to a synthesis gas mixture. Many chemicals can be produced from methane via the more reactive synthesis gas...

Uses Of Naphthenic Acids And Its Salts

Free naphthenic acids are corrosive and are mainly used as their salts and esters. The sodium salts are emulsifying agents for preparing agricultural insecticides, additives for cutting oils, and emulsion breakers in the oil industry. Other metal salts of naphthenic acids have many varied uses. For example, calcium naphthenate is a lubricating oil additive, and zinc naphthenate is an antioxidant. Lead, zinc, and barium naphthenates are wetting agents used as dispersion agents for paints. Some...

Natural Gas Nonassociated and Associated Natural Gases

Natural gas is a naturally occurring mixture of light hydrocarbons accompanied by some non-hydrocarbon compounds. Non-associated natural gas is found in reservoirs containing no oil (dry wells). Associated gas, on the other hand, is present in contact with and or dissolved in crude oil and is coproduced with it. The principal component of most Composition of non-associated and associated natural gases1 Non-associated gas Associated gas Salt Lake Kliffside Abqaiq North Sea Component US US Saudi...

Thermoplastics And Engineering Resins

Thermoplastics are important polymeric materials that have replaced or substituted many naturally-derived products such as paper, wood, and steel. Plastics possess certain favorable properties such as light weight, corrosion resistance, toughness, and ease of handling. They are also less expensive. The major use of the plastics is in the packaging field. Many other uses include construction, electrical and mechanical goods, and insulation. One growing market that evolved fairly recently is...

Catalytic Cracking

Ch3ch2chch2

Catalytic cracking (Cat-cracking) is a remarkably versatile and flexible process. Its principal aim is to crack lower-value stocks and produce higher-value light and middle distillates. The process also produces light hydrocarbon gases, which are important feedstocks for petrochemicals. Catalytic cracking produces more gasoline of higher octane than thermal cracking. This is due to the effect of the catalyst, which promotes iso-merization and dehydrocyclization reactions. Products from...

Butylene Oxide CH3CH2CHCH2

Petrochemical Process

Butylene oxide, like propylene oxide, is produced by the chlorohydri-nation of l-butene with HOCl followed by epoxidation. The reaction conditions are similar to those used for propylene CH3CH2CH CH2 + HOCl r CH3CH2CHOHCH2Cl Butylene oxide may be hydrolyzed to butylene glycol, which is used to make plasticizers. 1,2-Butylene oxide is a stabilizer for chlorinated solvents and also an intermediate in organic synthesis such as in surfactants and pharmaceuticals. Hydration of n-Butenes (sec-Butanol...

Catalytic Reforming

Catalytic Reforming

The aim of this process is to improve the octane number of a naphtha feedstock by changing its chemical composition. Hydrocarbon compounds differ greatly in their octane ratings due to differences in structure. In general, aromatics have higher octane ratings than paraffins and cycloparaffins. Similar to aromatics, branched paraffins have high octane ratings. The octane number of a hydrocarbon mixture is a function of the octane numbers of the different components and their ratio in the...

Methyl Alcohol Ch3oh

Ch3ci Structure Images

Methyl alcohol methanol is the first member of the aliphatic alcohol family. It ranks among the top twenty organic chemicals consumed in the U.S. The current world demand for methanol is approximately 25.5 million tons year 1998 and is expected to reach 30 million tons by the year 2002.9 The 1994 U.S. production was 10.8 billion pounds. Methanol was originally produced by the destructive distillation of wood wood alcohol for charcoal production. Currently, it is mainly produced from synthesis...

Steam Cracking Process

Petrochemical Furnance Pictures

A typical ethane cracker has several identical pyrolysis furnaces in which fresh ethane feed and recycled ethane are cracked with steam as a diluent. Figure 3-12 is a block diagram for ethylene from ethane. The outlet temperature is usually in the 800 C range. The furnace effluent is quenched in a heat exchanger and further cooled by direct contact in a water quench tower where steam is condensed and recycled to the pyrolysis furnace. After the cracked gas is treated to remove acid gases,...

Fermentation Using nParaffins Single Cell Protein SCP

The term single cell protein is used to represent a group of microbial cells such as algae and yeast that have high protein content. The production of these cells is not generally considered a synthetic process but microbial farming via fermentation in which n-paraffins serve as the substrate. Substantial research efforts were invested in the past two decades to grow algae, fungi, and yeast on different substrates such as n-paraffins, methane, methanol, and even carbon dioxide. The product SCP...

The Furnace Black Process

This is a more advanced partial combustion process. The feed is first preheated and then combusted in the reactor with a limited amount of air. The hot gases containing carbon particles from the reactor are quenched with a water spray and then further cooled by heat exchange with the air used for the partial combustion. The type of black produced depends on the feed type and the furnace temperature. The average particle diameter of the blacks from the oil furnace process ranges between 200-500...

Sulfonation Of nParaffins Secondary Alkane Sulfonates SAS

Linear secondary alkane sulfonates are produced by the reaction between sulfur dioxide and n-paraffins in the range of C15-C17. R-H 2SO2 2O2 H2O r RSO3H H2SO4 The reaction is catalyzed by ultraviolet light with a wave-length between 3,300-3,600A.21 The sulfonates are nearly 100 biodegradable, soft and stable in hard water, and have good washing properties. Sodium alkanesulfonates for detergent manufacture can also be produced from the free-radical addition of sodium bisulfite and alpha olefins

Solvent Extraction

Petrochemical Reformer

Liquid solvents are used to extract either desirable or undesirable compounds from a liquid mixture. Solvent extraction processes use a liquid solvent that has a high solvolytic power for certain compounds in the feed mixture. For example, ethylene glycol has a greater affinity for aromatic hydrocarbons and extracts them preferentially from a reformate mixture a liquid paraffinic and aromatic product from catalytic reforming . The raffinate, which is mainly paraffins, is freed from traces of...

Cracking Liquid Feeds

Raffinate Extraction

Liquid feedstocks for olefin production are light naphtha, full range naphtha, reformer raffinate, atmospheric gas oil, vacuum gas oil, residues, and crude oils. The ratio of olefins produced from steam cracking of these feeds depends mainly on the feed type and, to a lesser extent, on the operation variables. For example, steam cracking light naphtha produces about twice the amount of ethylene obtained from steam cracking vacuum gas oil under nearly similar conditions. Liquid feeds are usually...

Hydrocracking Process

Hydrocracking is essentially catalytic cracking in the presence of hydrogen. It is one of the most versatile petroleum refining schemes adapted to process low value stocks. Generally, the feedstocks are not suitable for catalytic cracking because of their high metal, sulfur, nitrogen, and asphaltene contents. The process can also use feeds with high aromatic content. Products from hydrocracking processes lack olefinic hydrocarbons. The product slate ranges from light hydrocarbon gases to...

Hydration Of Ethylene Ethanol Production

Production Ethanol Hydration

Ethyl alcohol CH3CH2OH production is considered by many to be the world's oldest profession. Fermenting carbohydrates is still the Figure 7-6. The PPG Industries Inc. Chloroethylene process for producing perchloro- and trichloroethylene 15 1 reactor, 2 graphite exchanger, 3 refrigerated condenser, 4 scrubber, 5 phase separation of perchlor from trichlor, 6, 7 azeotropic distillation, 8 distillation train, 9-11 crude trichlor separation purification, 10-16 crude perchlor separation purification....

Aromatics Production

Liquefied petroleum gas LPG , a mixture of propane and butanes, is catalytically reacted to produce an aromatic-rich product. The first step is Figure 6-5. The DuPont butane to maleic anhydride process.' Figure 6-5. The DuPont butane to maleic anhydride process.' assumed to be the dehydrogenation of propane and butane to the corresponding olefins followed by oligomerization to C6, C7, and C8 olefins. These compounds then dehydrocyclize to BTX aromatics. The following reaction sequence...

Structurepoint Cpoint C

Butane Isomerization Process

Flow diagram of the Mobil xylene isomerization process.1 Figure 2-3. Flow diagram of the Mobil xylene isomerization process.1 by incorporating an isomerization unit to isomerize o- and m-xylenes to p-xylene. An overall yield of 90 p-xylene could be achieved. Figure 2-3 is a flow diagram of the Mobil isomerization process. In this process, partial conversion of ethylbenzene to benzene also occurs. The catalyst used is shape selective and contains ZSM-5 zeolite.12 Benzene C6H6 is the...

Nonhydrocarbon Intermediates

Furnace Petrochemical

From natural gas, crude oils, and other fossil materials such as coal, few intermediates are produced that are not hydrocarbon compounds. The important intermediates discussed here are hydrogen, sulfur, carbon black, and synthesis gas. Synthesis gas consists of a nonhydrocarbon mixture H2,CO obtainable from more than one source. It is included in this chapter and is further noted in Chapter 5 in relation to methane as a major feedstock for this mixture. This chapter discusses the use of...

Liquid Petroleum Fractions And Residues

Liquid Petroleum fractions are light naphtha, heavy naphtha, kerosine and gas oil. The bottom product from distillation units is the residue. These mixtures are intermediates through which other reactive intermediates are obtained. Heavy naphtha is a source of aromatics via catalytic reforming and of olefins from steam cracking units. Gas oils and residues are sources of olefins through cracking and pyrolysis processes. The composition and the properties of these mixtures are reviewed in the...

Aniline C6H5NH2

Aniline aminobenzene is an oily liquid that turns brown when exposed to air and light. The compound is an important dye precursor. The main process for producing aniline is the hydrogenation of nitrobenzene The hydrogenation reaction occurs at approximately 270 C and slightly above atmospheric over a Cu Silica catalyst. About a 95 yield is obtained. An alternative way to produce aniline is through ammonolysis of either chlorobenzene or phenol. The reaction of chlorobenzene with aqueous ammonia...

Ch2ch2 h2o

The hydrolysis reaction occurs at a temperature range of 50-100 C. Contact time is approximately 30 minutes. Di- and triethylene glycols are coproducts with the monoglycol. Increasing the water ethylene oxide ratio and decreasing the contact time decreases the formation of higher glycols. A water ethylene oxide ratio of 10 is normally used to get approximately 90 yield of the monoglycol. However, the di- and the triglycols are not an economic burden, because of their commercial uses. A new...

Chemicals From Butadiene

Petrochemical Processes

Butadiene is a diolefinic hydrocarbon with high potential in the chemical industry. In 1955, it was noticed that the assured future of butadiene CH2 CH-CH CH2 lies with synthetic rubber . . . the potential of butadiene is in its chemical versatility . . . its low cost, ready availability, and great activity tempt researchers.20 Butadiene is a colorless gas, insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol. It can be liquefied easily under pressure. This reactive compound polymerizes readily in the...

Ammonia Production Haber Process

Reactor For Petrochemicals

The production of ammonia is of historical interest because it represents the first important application of thermodynamics to an industrial process. Considering the synthesis reaction of ammonia from its elements, the calculated reaction heat AH and free energy change AG at room temperature are approximately -46 and -16.5 KJ mol, respectively. Although the calculated equilibrium constant Kc 3.6 x 108 at room temperature is substantially high, no reaction occurs under these conditions, and the...

Chemicals From Xylenes

Oxidation Para Xylene

Xylenes dimethylbenzenes are an aromatic mixture composed of three isomers o-, m-, and p-xylene . They are normally obtained from catalytic reforming and cracking units with other C6, C7, and C8 aromat-ics. Separating the aromatic mixture from the reformate is done by extraction-distillation and isomerization processes Chapter 2 . para-Xylene is the most important of the three isomers for producing terephthalic acid to manufacture polyesters. m-Xylene is the least used of the three isomers, but...

Oxidation Of Paraffins Fatty Acids and Fatty Alcohols

Petrochemical

The catalytic oxidation of long-chain paraffins Ci8-C30 over manganese salts produces a mixture of fatty acids with different chain lengths. Temperature and pressure ranges of 105-120 C and 15-60 atmospheres are used. About 60 wt yield of fatty acids in the range of Cl2-Cl4 is obtained. These acids are used for making soaps. The main source for fatty acids for soap manufacture, however, is the hydrolysis of fats and oils a nonpetroleum source . Oxidation of paraffins to fatty acids may be...

Steam Cracking Of Hydrocarbons Production of Olefins

The main route for producing light olefins, especially ethylene, is the steam cracking of hydrocarbons. The feedstocks for steam cracking units range from light paraffinic hydrocarbon gases to various petroleum fractions and residues. The properties of these feedstocks are discussed in Chapter 2. The cracking reactions are principally bond breaking, and a substantial amount of energy is needed to drive the reaction toward olefin production. The simplest paraffin alkane and the most widely used...

Reactions And Chemicals Of Benzene

Benzene Sulfonation Process

Benzene C6H6 is the most important aromatic hydrocarbon. It is the precursor for many chemicals that may be used as end products or inter mediates. Almost all compounds derived directly from benzene are converted to other chemicals and polymers. For example, hydrogenation of benzene produces cyclohexane. Oxidation of cyclohexane produces cyclohexanone, which is used to make caprolactam for nylon manufacture. Due to the resonance stabilization of the benzene ring, it is not easily polymerized....

Production Of Diolefins

Petrochemical

Diolefins are hydrocarbon compounds that have two double bonds. Conjugated diolefins have two double bonds separated by one single bond. Due to conjugation, these compounds are more stable than mono-olefins and diolefins with isolated double bonds. Conjugated diolefins also have different reactivities than monoolefins. The most important industrial diolefinic hydrocarbons are butadiene and isoprene. Product composition from cracking atmospheric gas oil and vacuum gas oil44,48,50 Product...

Ch3chch2 h2o2 ch3chch2 h2o

Deriatives and Uses of Propylene Oxide Similar to ethylene oxide, the hydration of propylene oxide produces propylene glycol. Propylene oxide also reacts with alcohols, producing polypropylene glycol ethers, which are used to produce polyurethane foams and detergents. Isomerization of propylene oxide produces allyl alcohol, a precursor for glycerol. The 1994 U.S. production of propylene oxide, the 35th highest-volume chemical, was approximately 3.7 billion pounds. Table 8-3 shows the 1992 U.S....

Hch co 2h2 hoch9ch9oh

F. and Matar S., Petrochemicals from Methane From Hydrocarbons to Petrochemicals, Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, 1981, p. 49. 2. Chemical and Engineering News, Aug. 16, 1999, p. 7. 3. Stevenson, R. M., Introduction to the Chemical Process lndustries, Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 1966, p. 293. 4. Al-Najjar, I. M., CFC's Symposium Phase out Chlorofluorocarbons Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. No. 24, 1992, pp. 398-441. 5. Shahani, G. H., et al., Hydrogen and...

Hydrodealkylation Process

Benzene Methane

This process is designed to hydrodealkylate methylbenzenes, ethyl-benzene and C9 aromatics to benzene. The petrochemical demand for benzene is greater than for toluene and xylenes. After separating benzene Figure 3-8. Flow diagram of a Cheveron hydocracking unit 29 1,4 reactors, 2,5 HP separators, 3 recycle scrubber optional , 6 LP separator, 7 fractionator. Figure 3-8. Flow diagram of a Cheveron hydocracking unit 29 1,4 reactors, 2,5 HP separators, 3 recycle scrubber optional , 6 LP separator,...

Uses of Acrylonitrile

Propylene Oxide Process Flow Diagram

Acrylonitrile is mainly used to produce acrylic fibers, resins, and elastomers. Copolymers of acrylonitrile with butadiene and styrene are the ABS resins and those with styrene are the styrene-acrylonitrile resins SAN that are important plastics. The 1998 U.S. production of acrylonitrile was approximately 3.1 billion pounds.10 Most of the production was used for ABS resins and acrylic and modacrylic fibers. Acrylonitrile is also a precursor for acrylic acid by hydrolysis and for adiponitrile by...

Viscosity Breaking Visbreaking

Diagrama Flujo Ingenieria Civil

Viscosity breaking aims to thermally crack long-chain feed molecules to shorter ones, thus reducing the viscosity and the pour point of the product. In this process, the feed is usually a high viscosity, high pour point fuel oil that cannot be used or transported, especially in cold climates, due to the presence of waxy materials. Wax is a complex mixture of long-chain paraffins mixed with aromatic compounds having long paraffinic side chains. Vis-breaking is a mild cracking process that...

Isoprene H2CCCHCH2

Isoprene 2-methyl 1,3-butadiene is the second most important conjugated diolefin after butadiene. Most isoprene production is used for the manufacture of cis-polyisoprene, which has a similar structure to natural rubber. It is also used as a copolymer in butyl rubber formulations. Crude Oil Processing and Production of Hydrocarbon Intermediates 105 Production There are several different routes for producing isoprene. The choice of one process over the other depends on the availability of the...

Rconhr

Some of the more abundant are sodium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, iron, vanadium, and nickel. They are present either as inorganic salts, such as sodium and magnesium chlorides, or in the form of organometallic compounds, such as those of nickel and vanadium as in porphyrins . Calcium and magnesium can form salts or soaps with carboxylic acids. These compounds act as emul-sifiers, and their presence is undesirable. Although metals in crudes are found in trace...