Info

A In deducing source terms, due account is taken of the possibilities for forward and back flow, and the differences between normally live and intermittent use items. b L, liquid G, gas. c Equivalent continuous release. d C, controlled by remotely operated shut-off valve (RSOV) U, RSOV fails or absent. e Pipe used intermittently. Failure rate assumed to be 10x that of normal pipeline, then multiplied by fractional use. f Pipe live when AIL is live. g 50 operations per annum. h EFVC, excess flow...

Diers

Nolan and Barton (1987) Cronin, Nolan and Barton (1987) Pantony, Scilly and Barton (1989) ABPI (1981, 1989) Pilz (1986) Fierz et al. (1983, 1984) Regenass (1984) Kohlbrand (1985, 1987a, 1990) Gordon et al. (1982) O'Brien et al. (1982) Hoffmann (1985) Berkey and Workman (1987) Kunzi (1980) Barton and Rogers (1993) McNab (1981) N. Gibson (1984, 1986b) Christen (1980) Snyder (1965, 1982) Brannegan (1985) Duval (1985) Coates and Riddell (1981a,b) Lambert and Amery (1989) Figure 11.20 Phase plane...

L

Figure 7.19 Some patterns of equipment hazard rate, including and additional to the bathtub curve (Moubray, 1991) (Courtesy of Butterworth-Heinemann) exhibit a constant hazard rate. This is readily understood intuitively in terms of a smoothing out of particular hazard rate characteristics of individual components. The phenomenon is well illustrated by the so-called lightbulb curve' shown in Figure 7.20. If a building is provided with new lightbulbs throughout, then assuming that these fail by...

8211 Hazcheck

The first element in the system is HAZCHECK, which might be described as an enhanced checklist system. Accounts of HAZCHECK are given by Reeves, Wells and Linkens (1989), Hurst and Reeves (1990), Wells, Phang and Reeves (1991) and Wells (1992 LPB 105). HAZCHECK is essentially a structured checklist, or set of checklists. The main headings are given in the master list and are expanded in subordinate lists. The master list has been given in a number of versions. It is convenient here to give that...

Fire fighting

Hand fire extinguishers Water supply Installed sprinkler, water spray or monitor systems a This table lists the offsetting factors but not the associated numerical values. See Technical Manual (D.J. Lewis, 1979) for full details. application. It has been described by D.J. Lewis (1980, 1984) and is considered in more detail in Chapter 10. The instantaneous fractional annual loss (IFAL) index is a separate index developed by the Insurance Technical Bureau primarily for insurance assessment...

Hazard Accident and Loss

2.2 Standard Industrial Classification 2 4 A rational approach to loss prevention must be based on an understanding of the nature of accidents and of the types of loss which actually occur. Therefore, in this chapter, first the nature of the accident process is considered and then the accident and loss statistics are reviewed to give an indication of the problem. Selected references on accident and loss experience are given in Table 2.1. In addition, many other tables of data are given in other...

21 The Accident Process

There are certain themes which recur in the investigation of accidents and which reveal much about the accident process. First, although in some reporting schemes the investigator is required to determine the cause of the accident, it frequently appears meaningless to assign a single cause as the accident has arisen from a particular combination of circumstances. Second, it is often found that the accident has been preceded by other incidents which have been 'near misses'. These are cases where...

83Checklists

One of the most useful tools of hazard identification is the checklist. Like a standard or a code of practice, a checklist is a means of passing on hard-won experience. It is impossible to envisage high standards in hazard control unless this experience is effectively utilized. The checklist is one of the main tools available to assist in this. Checklists are applicable to management systems in general and to a project throughout all its stages. Obviously the checklist must be appropriate to...

12 Industrial Safety and Loss Trends

About 1970 it became increasingly recognized that there was a world-wide trend for losses due to accidents to rise more rapidly than gross national product (GNP). This may be illustrated by the situation in the UK. The first half of this century saw a falling trend in personal accidents in British factories, but about 1960 this fall bottomed out. Over the next decade very little progress was made in fact there was some regression. Figure 1.1 shows the number of fatal accidents and the total...

10 100 1000

Figure 9.37 Groningen FN curve risk criterion (Hagon, 1984 after PWG, 1979) (Courtesy of the Institution of Chemical Engineers) F3300 2.2 x 10-5 This indicates that large accidents are a significant contributor to the average risk of death. and Hagon takes as a prime determinant of the risk d30_2 4 x 10-3 aversion index a the parameter F , which is the 1 . frequency of all accidents between one with N fatalities D3 oo 52 x 10-3 and one with the maximum number M of fatalities. Figure 9.23 shows...

817 Computer Hazop

The hazop study method just described was developed for plants in which predominantly the control system was based on analogue controllers. The advent of computer control has created the need for some method which addresses the specific problems of this form of control. There are now the beginnings of a methodology for the hazop-like study of computer controlled process systems, or computer hazop (CHAZOP). This is quite distinct from computer-aiding of hazop. Accounts of approaches to computer...

31 Factory legislation

The current regulatory regime and legislation for health and safety in the UK is best understood as a continuation of developments which have taken place over the best part of 200 years. Accounts of the development of factories legislation are given in Safety and Health at Work (Robens, 1972) (the Robens Report), the HM Chief Inspector of Factories Annual Report 1974 (HMCIF, 1974), Her Majesty's Inspectors of Factories 1833-1983 (HSE, 1983d) and The Work of a Factory Inspector (HSE, 1987b)....

5

Thus the low pressure discharge of slurry from one of the crystallizers reaches the stack via the PCV header on 2 x 9.7 x 10 3 +1 x 10 3 20.4 x10 3 occasions year Noxious discharge from the top of the stack occurs only if the stack base or drain is blocked. It is estimated that blockage will occur on 2 occasions year. The stack drain is checked for blockage once per day so that, on average, a blockage would be unrevealed for 12 h. Allowing 6h for clearing the blockage gives a mean downtime for...

115 Licensors Vendors and Contractors

The description of the design process which has just been given is based essentially on that which takes place in an operating company which is designing its own plant. The ultimate responsibility for the safe design and operation of plant lies with the operating company. It should take the appropriate steps to ensure that the processes designed and the equipment supplied by the other parties are safe. Some design responsibility resides, however, with other parties. These may be (1) licensor,...

Stage Two plot layout

Typical stages in the development of a plant layout are given in Table 10.3. The Stage Two and Final Stage design network is shown in simplified form in Figure 10.1. The process of layout development makes considerable use of guidelines for separation distances. These are described in Section 10.11. Stage One is the preliminary layout, also known as the conceptual, definition, proposal or front end layout. In this stage consideration is given to the various factors which are important in the...

33 Factory Inspectorate

The original inspectorate is the Factory Inspectorate set up under the 1833 Act. This is the largest Inspectorate and that which is of principal interest in the present context. References to accounts of the work of a Factory Inspector were given in Section 3.1. The development of the Factory Inspectorate and its current work are described in the HM Chief Inspector of Factories Annual Report 1974 (HMCIF, 1974), Her Majesty's Inspectors of Factories 1833-1983 (HSE, 1983d) and The Work of a...

3d

Te effective time duration(s) Ie effective radiation intensity (W m2) t time duration of pool burning (s) I radiation intensity from pool burning (W m2) p peak overpressure (N m2) J impulse (Ns m2) C concentration (ppm) T time interval (min) Table 9.19 CPD models principal contents of Yellow Book and Green Book (Committee for the Prevention of Disasters, 1992a,b) Turbulent free jet Spray release Evaporation Heat radiation Dispersion Vapour cloud explosion Consequences of rupture of vessels...

Spacings between two storage units spacing between one tank wall and the other tank wall m

Overall risk Overall risk rating R2 of storage unit B storage unit high Extreme Very extreme Very Very units with frothover or boilover potential and with units located on sloping ground. Another approach to the determination of separation distances is to use hazard models to determine the separation distance at which the concentration from a vapour escape or the thermal radiation from a fire fall to an acceptable level. This is the other side of the coin to hazard assessment of a proposed...

2

And 45 fatalities, giving 0.23 deaths incident. This higher figure reflects the fact that these incidents are biased towards those involving fatalities. Marrs and Lees express the risk in terms of reactor operating time Frequency of fatality 6.7 x 10-5 deaths reactor-year The fatal accident rate (FAR) from this cause alone was estimated as 3.8. The chemical and petrochemical industries are described in The Petroleum Chemicals Industry (Goldstein and Waddams, 1967), The Petrochemical Industry...

Acknowledgements

For permission to reproduce material in this book the author would like to acknowledge in particular Academic Press Adam Hilger Addison-Wesley Publishers AGEMA Infrared Systems the Air Pollution Control Association the American Chemical Society the American Gas Association the American Institute of Chemical Engineers the American Petroleum Institute the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Anderson Greenwood...

212 Case Histories

The generalized statistics may be supplemented by individual case histories. These are treated in Appendix 1, which describes the various sources and gives specific case histories. The sources include the accident reports of the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) the collections of the Manufacturing Chemists Association (MCA) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) the periodic reviews of insurers, such as the 100 Large Losses (Marsh and...

Preface to Second Edition

The first edition of this book appeared in 1980, at the end of a decade of rapid growth and development in loss prevention. After another decade and a half the subject is more mature, although development continues apace. In preparing this second edition it has been even more difficult than before to decide what to put in and what to leave out. The importance of loss prevention has been underlined by a number of disasters. Those at San Carlos, Mexico City, Bhopal and Pasadena are perhaps the...

Pb And Pc Fb And Fc Fb And Pc

Pa Pb+Pc-PbPc pb+pc Not permitted Pa PbPc where p is the probability of failure of the protective action, A is the frequency of the input event, and A0 is the frequency of the output event. For a Type 2 situation, Equation 9.5.3 is again applicable, with the probability p of failure of protective action in this case being obtained from Equation 9.5.2. The evaluation of a Type 3 situation is less straightforward. For this, use may be made of the appropriate parallel system model derived from...

1023 Modular Plants

During the late 1950s and early 1960s there was introduced a type of plant consisting of a number of modules and mounted on skids which could be transported by road from the fabrication to the operating site. The processes were straightforward and the plants were simple and cheap. From these early skid-mounted plants there has developed a whole range of modular and barge-mounted plants, some of which are large and complex. Accounts of modular plants have been given by Glaser, Kramer and Causey...

314 Flammables Explosives and Fire Legislation

3.14.1 The Petroleum (Consolidation) Act 1928 The Petroleum (Consolidation) Act 1928 (P(C)A) was brought in to deal with the storage and transport of 'petroleum spirit'. Petroleum spirit is defined as petroleum with a flash point equal to or less than 22.8oC (73oF). Although old, the Act is still in force. The P(C)A deals mainly with the licensing of premises for the storage of petroleum spirit. By its extension to other flammable substances it represented for a long time the principal means of...

Fault Tree Analysis Template

Centrifugal Pump Fault Tree Analysis

There are a number of quantitative measures of importance which may be calculated if frequency or probability data are available. These include the Birnbaum criterion, which is the incremental reduction in the probability of the top event where the probability of the primary event is reduced incrementally, and the Vesely-Fussell criterion, which is the probability that a cut set containing the primary event has occurred given that the top event has occurred. Formal methods of determining...

7517

For events not mutually exclusive but of low probability the error in using Equation 7.5.9 instead of Equation 7.5.5 is small. Equation 7.5.9 is sometimes called the low probability, or rare event, approximation. The estimate of probability given by Equation 7.5.9 errs on the high side and hence is conservative in calculating failure probabilities, but is not conservative in calculating success probabilities or reliabilities. 7.5.3 Joint and marginal probability So far the events considered are...

08774

Then application of Equation 7.10.37 gives the probabilities of tank hold-up listed in Table 7.17. The throughput capability of the system is now calculated. A throughput capability of 10 m3 h occurs when the throughput capabilities of the upstream and downstream units are 0 m3 and 90 or 100 m3, respectively. The probability of a system throughput capability of 10 m3 h is 0.02 x 0.1826 x (0.06 + 0.90) 0.0035 Table 7.16 Plant availability example probability of net inflow The other throughput...

103 Layout Generation

For factories generally there are a number of different principles on which plant layout may be based (Muther, 1961). Thus in light engineering use is made of layouts in which the material fabricated remains in a fixed position and others in which a particular process or function is performed at a fixed point. For process plants, however, the most appropriate method is generally to lay the plant out so that the material flow follows the process flow diagram. This is the process flow principle....

19 Total Quality Management

A related, but not identical, development is total quality management (TQM). The concept underlying TQM is that the problem of failures and their effects has an influence on company performance which is far greater than is generally appreciated, defining failure in a broad way. TQM has its origins in quality control on production lines. It has spread to industry generally, including the process industries. Most accounts of TQM highlight the role played by a number of individuals who have been...

109 Pipework Layout

In general, it is desirable both for economic and safety reasons to keep the pipe runs to a minimum. Additional pipework costs more both in capital and operation, the latter through factors such as heat loss gain and pumping costs. It is also an extra hazard not only from the pipe itself but more particularly from the joints and fittings. The application of the flow principle is effective in minimizing pipe runs, but it is also necessary to practise segregation and this will sometimes lead to...

106 Site Layout Features

10.6.1 Site constraints and standards Once a site has been selected the next step is to establish the site constraints and standards. The constraints include Topographical and geological features are those such as the lie of the land and its load-bearing capabilities. Weather includes temperatures, wind conditions, solar radiation, and thunderstorms. Environment covers people, activities and buildings in the vicinity. Services are power, water and effluents. Legal constraints include planning...

104 Layout Techniques and Aids

There are a number of methods available for layout design. These are generally more applicable to the analysis rather than the synthesis of layouts, but some have elements of both. They include (1) classification, rating and ranking There are also various aids, including 10.4.1 Classification, rating and ranking There are several methods of classification, rating and ranking which are used in layout design. The main techniques are those used for the classification of (1) hazardous areas, (2)...

L Rotating equipment

Penalty of 0.5 is applied for a process unit which utilizes, or is (1) A compressor in excess of 600 hp (3) Agitators and circulating pumps in which failure could produce a process exotherm11 (4) Other large, high speed rotating equipment with a significant loss history, e.g. centrifuge a For mixtures the highest Nh value of the individual components should be used. b If the penalty is applied, the penalty specified in Section C or E should not be duplicated or repeated c The main process units...

816 Sneak Analysis

In contrast to general methods such as hazop and FMECA, there are also niche methods. One of these is sneak analysis. Accounts of sneak analysis are given by E.J. Hill and Bose (1975), J.R. Taylor (1979, 1992), Rankin (1984), Dore (1991), Hahn et al. (1991), Hokstad, Aro and Taylor (1991) and Whetton (1993b). Sneak analysis originated in sneak circuit analysis (SCA), a method of identifying design errors in electronic circuits (E.J. Hill and Bose, 1975). The technique was Table 8.37 Failure...

911 Human Factors and Human Error

Human error and, more generally, human factors is a wide and complex topic and the treatment here is limited to the bare essentials necessary for a balanced treatment of hazard assessment. A more detailed account is given in Chapter 14. The account given there includes details of available techniques. The discussion in this section tries to set these techniques in the context of hazard assessment. 9.11.1 Human error in hazard assessment Analyses of failures in technological systems generally...

W

Figure 11.5 ICI Higee mass transfer unit (Ramshaw, 1983) (Courtesy of the Institution of Chemical Engineers) where d is the pipe diameter (cm), W is the throughput (te year) and 0 is a ratio. The ideal value of this ratio is unity, but on existing plants it is typically an order of magnitude higher. Returning to applications of intensification other than reactors, an outstanding example in separation operations is the ICI Higee process (Ramshaw, 1983). Mass transfer units based on this...

Mitigating features

Leak size Protective devices Operator action Inspection procedures The plant consists of a reactor which is fed with both hydrocarbon and air. The air is supplied from an air receiver, which is fed by an air compressor. There is a pressure relief valve on the air receiver and a non-return valve between the air receiver and the reactor. An explosion is assumed to occur if an explosive mixture develops, since an ignition source is assumed always to be present. An explosive mixture can occur if an...

Pareto Rectangular

Extreme value b exp t exp -exp t a + b r'(1)b br'(l) 0.57721 is the first derivative of the gamma function. Figure 7.4 Some failure distributions - 1 (a) exponential distribution (b) normal distribution (c) log-normal distribution (d) Weibull distribution Figure 7.4 Some failure distributions - 1 (a) exponential distribution (b) normal distribution (c) log-normal distribution (d) Weibull distribution There are several statistical distributions which are fundamental in work on reliability....

81 Safety Audits

One of the first systematic methods of hazard identification used in the chemical industry was the safety audit. Audits of various types are a normal management tool and are of considerable importance in safety. An early account of safety audits in the UK was the British Chemical Industry Safety Council (BCISC) report Safe and Sound (1969 9), which drew on the experience of the US chemical industry, where the safety audit was established as a prime means of ensuring safety. A full description...

116 Project Management

It is important for safety not only that the plant should be well designed, but that the project as a whole should be well managed. Accounts of project management are given in A Guide to Project Procedure (Rose, Wells and Yeats, 1978), Project Management Handbook (Cleland and King, 1983), Effective Project Cost Control (Kharbanda and Stallworthy, 1985) and A Guide to Project Implementation (Kharbanda and Stallworthy, 1985) The guide by Rose, Wells and Yeats (1978) covers project preliminaries,...

989

The value of n is a function of the diversity of the components in the system and its value usually lies in the range 1-4. The partial beta factor method is not actually a separate method but rather a method of obtaining a more accurate value of the beta factor. The method is described by Humphreys and Johnston (1987 SRD R418). The authors suggest that a practical limit of the beta factor in a redundant subsystem is about 2 x 10 2 and that in a diverse subsystem is about 10...

Systems

6.3 Management Organization 6 4 6.8 Standards and Codes of Practice 6 6 6.26 Safety Management Systems 6 15 6.27 Process Safety Management 6 15 6.28 CCPS Management Guidelines 6 16 The preceding chapters have indicated the nature of and the background to the problem of safety and loss prevention (SLP). The starting point for its solution is the management and the management system. The importance of the management system has been stressed in a number of reports on safety in the chemical...

Personal Safety 251

Human Factors 25 4 Occupational Health 25 6 Occupational Hygiene 25 7 COSHH Regulations 1988 25 11 Dust Hazards 25 15 Asbestos Dust 25 16 Ventilation 25 17 Skin Disease 25 21 Physico-chemical Hazards 25 21 Ionizing Radiation Hazards 25 23 Non-ionizing Radiation Hazards 25 24 Machinery Hazards 25 25 25.13 Electricity Hazards 25 27 25.14 Other Activities and Hazards 25 27 25.15 Personal Protective Equipment 25 3O 25.16 Respiratory Protective Equipment 25 3l 25.17 Rescue and First Aid 25 34

17 Total Loss Control

It is now necessary to consider some other developments which have contributed to the modern approach to safety and loss prevention. The first of these is total loss control. The basic concept underlying total loss control is that loss due to personal accident and injury is only the tip of the iceberg of the full loss arising from incidents. It follows that attention should be paid, and controls applied, to all losses. Early work in this area is described in Industrial Accident Prevention...

Demand Tree

Figure 2.2 Fault tree model of the accident process Accident models which show the role of human error have been developed by Rasmussen (1982a,b). Figure 2.4 shows such a model. The role of human error in causing accidents is considered in more detail in Chapter 14. Figure 2.5 shows a model proposed by the Advisory Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (ACSNI, 1991). The model provides a general framework which can be used to identify latent failures that are likely to lead to...

15 Emission and Dispersion 151

15.3 Two-phase Flow Fauske Models 15 27 15.4 Two-phase Flow Leung Models 15 31 15.5 Vessel Depressurization 15 35 15.6 Pressure Relief Valves 15 40 15.14 Dispersion Modelling 15 102 15.15 Passive Dispersion 15 104 15.16 Passive Dispersion Models 15 106 15.17 Passive Dispersion Dispersion over Particular Surfaces 15 119 15.18 Passive Dispersion Dispersion in Particular Conditions 15 123 15.19 Passive Dispersion Dispersion Parameters 15 124 15.20 Dispersion of Jets and Plumes 15 136 15.21...

117 Inherently Safer Design

The best way of dealing with a hazard is to remove it completely. The provision of means to control the hazard is very much the second best solution. In other words, the aim should be to design the process and plant so that they are inherently safer. The importance of limitation of the inventory of hazardous materials in the plant was one of the principal lessons drawn from the Flixborough disaster, as described below. In due course this specific aspect was subsumed in the more general...

Tests for selfaccelerating decomposition temperature SADT

Heat Accumulation Storage Test a C, Canada D, Germany F, France NL, The Netherlands. b This test has often been referred to as the Koenen Steel Tube Test, but is now generally known simply as the Koenen Test. c Small Scale Cook-Off Bomb. d Deflagration to detonation transition. 1.2 substances and articles which have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard 1.3 substances and articles which have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor...

54 Level of Loss Prevention Expenditure

The effect of different levels of expenditure on safety is shown in general terms in Figure 5.1 (Kletz, 1986d). The expenditure shown refers to that required over and above that necessary for a workable plant. At the left-hand end of the graph, expenditure on safety is also good business, but as the expenditure is increased the returns diminish and lead eventually to the company going out of business. The loss prevention approach has altered considerably the terms of the long-standing debate on...

1021 Toxics Protection

Another hazard against which protection may be required is that posed by a release of toxic gas. In general, ordinary buildings off site and even on site can afford an appreciable degree of protection against a transient toxic gas release, but for certain functions enhanced protection is required. It is also necessary to ensure that the protection potentially available is not defeated. Buildings of particular interest here are (1) the control building, (2) the emergency control centre and (3)...

Autoclave In Chemical Industry

Autoclave Work Flow Diagram

The design intent Method and resources materials, activities, equipments Time aspects sequence, frequency, duration, absolute time Space aspects relative location, sources and destinations, dimensions, absolute location Persons or controls person, skills, organization, control system Figure 8.27 Hazard and operability studies autoclave arrangement (Chemical Industry Safety and Health Council, 1977 3) Figure 8.27 Hazard and operability studies autoclave arrangement (Chemical Industry Safety and...

102 Plant Layout

Plant layout is a crucial factor in the economics and safety of process plant. Some of the ways in which plant layout contributes to safety and loss prevention are (1) segregation of different risks (2) minimization of vulnerable pipework (5) efficient and safe construction (6) efficient and safe operation (7) efficient and safe maintenance (9) emergency control facilities (11) access for emergency services Plant layout can have a large impact on plant economics. Additional space tends to...

831 Quality Assurance QUASA

A formal method for quality assessment assurance of safety analyses (QUASA) has been developed by Rouhiainen (1990). The method covers both qualitative and quantitative aspects, but with emphasis on hazard identification, and it is therefore appropriate to consider it at this point. The content of safety analysis is considered in terms of four main elements (1) hazard identification, (2) quantitative risk assessment, (3) remedial measures and (4) resources. The quality assessment examines...

411 Process Hazard Control Planning

Some appreciation of the planning system is necessary for the understanding of overall arrangements for the control of major hazards. The treatment given here is limited to providing this essential background. Fuller accounts are given by Petts (1984b,c, 1985a,b, 1988a,b, 1989, 1992). Legislation relevant to planning and major hazards is discussed in Chapter 3. The essential function of planning is the control of land use. This control may be used to prevent incompatible uses of adjacent pieces...

814 Hazard and Operability Studies

The hazard and operability (hazop) study is carried out when the engineering line diagram of the plant becomes available. Accounts of hazop studies are given in the CIA Guide to Hazard and Operability Studies (the CIA Hazop Study Guide) (CISHC, 1977 3), in Hazop and Hazan (Kletz, 1983d, 1986d, 1992b), Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedures (CCPS, 1985 1, 1992 9) (the CCPS Hazard Evaluation Guidelines) and A Manual of Hazard and Operability Studies (Knowlton, 1992) (the Chemetics Hazard...

Bowonder And Arvind

9.7 Cause-Consequence Diagrams 9 34 9.10 Rare Events and External Threats 9 49 9.11 Human Factors and Human Error 9 52 9.16 Population Characteristics 9 60 9.17 Modification of Exposure 9 70 9.19 Presentation of Results 9 76 9.20 Confidence in Results 9 79 9.24 Simplified Assessment Methods 9 109 9.28 Risk Assessment Debate 9 125 In the previous chapter an account was given of the process of identifying hazards, of the methods available and of the follow-up. For the great majority of hazards...

Process design scaleup unit operations

MCA (SG-14) Bridgman (1931) Perry (1934-) Edmister (1947-) Lyle (1947) Peters (1948) C.S. Robinson and Gilliland (1950) Treybal (1951, 1955) T.K. Sherwood and Pigford (1952) Coulson and Richardson (1955-, 1977-) Cremer (1956) Johnstone and Thring (1957) T.K. Ross and Freshwater (1957) Jeffreys (1961) Norman (1961) L. Clarke and Davidson (1962) Jenson and Jeffreys (1963) Kirk and Othmer (1963-, 1978-, 1991-) Ludwig (1964-) Hudson (1965) Bourton (1967) Landau (1967, 1981) McCabe and Smith (1967)...

1019 Control Buildings

Until the mid-1970s there were few generally accepted principles, and many variations in practice, in the design of control buildings. Frequently the control buildings constructed were rather vulnerable, being in or close to the plant and built of brick with large picture windows. The Flixborough disaster, in which 18 of the 28 deaths occurred in the control building, caused the Court of Inquiry to call for a fundamental reassessment of practice in this area. The control building at Flixborough...

61 Management attitude

Safety and loss prevention in an organization stand or fall by the attitude of senior management. This fact is simply stated, but it is difficult to overemphasize and it has far-reaching implications. It is the duty of senior management to ensure that this attitude to safety and loss prevention is realized throughout the company by the creation of a safety culture in which the company's way of doing things is also the safe way of doing things. It is not easy to create a proper attitude to...

Compressor houses

D.H.A Morris (1974) Prentice, Smith and Virtue (1974) Control rooms Bradford and Culbertson (1967) Burns (1967) Prescott (1967) Schmidt (1971) E. Edwards and Lees (1973) Mecklenburgh (1973, 1976, 1985) V.C. Marshall (1974, 1976a,c,d) Kletz (1975e) Anon. (1976 LPB 11, p. 16) Gugan (1976) Harvey (1976, 1979b) Langeveld (1976) Anon. (1977 LPB 16, p. 24) Balemans and van de Putte (1977) CIA (1979) Cannalire et al. (1993) FPA (1964 1) IP (1980 Eur. MCSP Pt 2, 1981 MCSP Pt 3, 1987 MCSP Pt 9) Home...

Hazard and operability hazop studies

Binsted (1960) Birchall (1960) Elliott and Owen (1968) Kletz (1972a, 1983d, 1984i, 1985e,i, 1986d, 1988b, 1992b) S.B. Gibson (1974, 1976a,b) ICI (1974) Lawley (1974a,b) Cowie (1976) Henderson and Kletz (1976) Knowlton (1976, 1979, 1981, 1989, 1992) Lock (1976) CIA (1988 RC18) CISHC (1977 6) Rushford (1977) Himmelblau (1978) Sachs (1978) Ministry of Social Affairs (1979a) A.F. Johnston, McQuaid and Games (1980) Lihou (1980a,b, 1990b, 1985 LPB 66) Wells (1980) Merriman (1982 LPB 48) Scott (LPB 48...

96 Event Trees

An event tree is used to develop the consequences of an event. It starts with a particular initial event such as a power failure or pipe rupture and is developed from the bottom up. The event tree is both a qualitative and a quantitative technique. Qualitatively it is used to identify the individual outcomes of the initial event, while quantitatively it is used to estimate the frequency or probability of each outcome. An event tree is constructed by defining an initial event and the possible...

Fault trees

IEC (Std 1205) NRC (Appendix 28 Fault Tree Analysis) Esary and Proschan (1963) Boeing Company (1965) Feutz and Waldeck (1965) Haasl (1965) Mearns (1965) Michels (1965) Recht (1966c) W.Q. Smith and Lien (1968) Crosetti and Bruce (1970) Mieze (1970) Vesely (1970a,b, 1977b, 1983) Crosetti (1971), Houston (1971) NTSB (1971) R.M. Stewart (1971, 1974a,b) Bennetts (1972, 1975) Fussell and Vesely (1972) Andow (1973, 1976, 1980, 1981, 1989) Barlow and Chatterjee (1973) Fussell (1973a,b, 1975,1976,1978b)...

111 The Design Process

The design of a large process plant or plant extension is a quite complex activity which is carried out in stages over a period of time and involves people of many disciplines. The design process normally involves other parties beside the operating company. This aspect is considered in Section 11.2. The project evolves under the influence of research and development, which define the technical possibilities and constraints safety, health and environmental studies, which indicate further...

224

Construction (General Provisions) Reports 1963 2003 Hoist and Lifts (Report of Examinations) 1382 Lifting Machines (Particulars of Examination) Order 1992 195 1681 1964 781 Examination of Steam Boilers Regulations 1070 Examination of Steam Boilers Reports 1965 1373 Building Regulations 1972 317 1975 2111 1824 Nuclear Installations (Dangerous Occurrences) Regulations 1441 Power Presses Regulations 303 1966 1143 Alkali etc. Works Order 1983 943 95 Construction (Health and Welfare) 1976 1676 94...

14

Exothermic runaway reaction in methanator Inadequate reaction Catalyst failure Low temperature feed Methanator bypassed Effluent to sewer Effluent caused by firewater Overpressure Overpressure in hydrogen Over-temperature Over-temperature in methanator Over-temperature Over-temperature in compressor Mechanical hazard Overload of compressor overload Abnormal opening Vibration at compressor Abnormal opening Spurious relief Release may self-ignite torch fire. Escalation to pipe rack likely....

Expert opinion

NRC (Appendix 28 Expert Judgement) Thurstone (1927, 1931) Wherry (1938) Kendall (1948, 1955, 1970) Guilford (1954) Khan (1957) C. Peterson and Miller (1964) B. Brown (1964) Pontecorvo (1965) Schmid (1966) C.R. Peterson and Beach (1967) Torgerson (1967) Winkler (1968, 1981, 1986) Alpert and Raiffa (1969) B. Brown et al. (1969) Dalkey (1969) Keats (1971) Pill (1971) Klee (1972) L.L. Philipson (1974a) Tversky and Kahneman (1974) Linstone and Turoff (1975) Spetzler and Stahl von Holstein (1975)...

34 Robens Report

By the late 1960s the need for an overhaul of British legislation on health and safety at work was apparent. In part the need was for revision and consolidation. But it was recognized that the question was deeper than this, that the law was lagging behind changes in industrial practice and that it was not dealing effectively with problems of scale and technology. There was also excessive fragmentation in the law and its administration. Some nine separate sets of legislation were administered by...

97 Cause Consequence Diagrams

A third technique which incorporates features both of the fault tree and of the event tree is the cause-consequence diagram. The cause-consequence diagram has been developed by D.S. Nielsen (1971, 1974, 1975) and by J.R. Taylor (1974d, 1978a). A cause-consequence diagram is constructed by defining a critical event and then developing the causes and consequences of this event. The forward development has the features of an event or a decision tree and the backward development those of a fault...

Nitration Reactor Overpressure

A BD, bursting disc RV, relief valve. a BD, bursting disc RV, relief valve. because in this case it is not possible to incorporate the safety margins which might be used in a new process. In a runaway reaction there is a reaction exotherm in the reactor, the heat evolved is not removed sufficiently rapidly, the temperature of the reaction mass rises and the reaction accelerates. The exotherm may be in the main, intended process reaction or in an undesired side reaction. A high pressure may then...

75 Some Probability Relationships

Intersection

It is appropriate to give, at this point, a brief treatment of some basic probability relationships. These are important in the present context not only because they are the basis of reliability expressions, but also because they are needed for work in areas such as fault trees. Some set theory definitions, operations and laws are given in Table 7.2 and some of these are illustrated by the Venn diagrams given in Figure 7.1. The union and intersection of sets may be written, respectively, in the...

700

Further details are given by Daniel (1973). The reactor feed in vapour phase chlorinations is kept outside the flammable range. Liquid phase reactions are frequently carried out by blowing the chlorine and organic reactants into liquid product in a tank reactor. The nitration reactions considered here are those of an organic compound with a nitrating agent such as nitric acid or mixed acid. Mixed acid is nitric acid admixed with a dehydrating acid such as sulphuric acid. Nitration accidents are...

1000 1000 1000

Equation 5.53 is a form of Bayes' theorem, which is described in Chapter 7. Then, using the probabilities given in Section E of Table 5.5, the loss cost may be recalculated using the relationship D(Ik, di) C(di, Sj)P(Sj Ik) 5.6 The present value of the loss cost and the total cost may then be recalculated using Equations 5.4.2 and 5.4.3. The results are shown in Section F of Table 5.5. The analysis is also illustrated in the decision tree diagram shown in Figure 5.2. The expected cost of the...

Definition Of Spill Event

Evaporation of a high vapor pressure substance Spreading and evaporation of a cryogen evaporation of a high vapor pressure substance Figure 9.21 Vulnerability model decision tree for behaviour of czargo on release (Eisenberg, Lynch and Breeding, 1975) Figure 9.21 Vulnerability model decision tree for behaviour of czargo on release (Eisenberg, Lynch and Breeding, 1975) (1982) (4) pool fire, using an in-house model and (5) jet flame, using the TNO free jet model to obtain the jet length combined...

Ci Di

Tree Diagram Civil Projects

A simplified fault tree which corresponds to Equation 9.5.6b is shown in Figure 9.3(c). Since fault trees for industrial systems are often large, it is necessary to have systematic methods of determining the minimum cut sets. Such a method is that described by Fussell (1976). As an illustration of this method, consider the motor system which is described by this author and which is shown in Figure 9.4(a). The top event considered is the overheating of the motor. The fault tree for this event is...

88 Hazard Indices

There are a number of hazard indices which have been developed for various purposes. Mention has already been made at the level of the material processed of indices of energy hazard potential. There are other indices which are applicable to the process and plant as a whole. Some principal indices of process and plant hazard are the Dow Index, the Mond Index and the IFAL Index. Another technique of ranking hazards is that of rapid ranking. The most widely used hazard index is almost certainly...

830 Quality Assurance Completeness

The quality of hazard identification virtually parallels the completeness of identification. It is of interest, therefore, to consider attempts made to assess the completeness of hazard identification. Some identified hazards are discarded as unrealizable. In discarding such hazards discrimination is exercised. It is desirable to have some measure of this also. A study of completeness and discrimination in hazard identification has been made by J.R. Taylor (1979 1981 Table 8.55 Checklist for a...

1011 Separation Distances

Plant layout is largely constrained by the need to observe minimum separation distances. For hazards, there are basically three approaches to determining a suitable separation distance. The first and most traditional one is to use standard distances developed by the industry. The second is to apply a ranking method to decide the separation required. The third is to estimate a suitable separation based on an engineering calculation for the particular case. Not all separation distances relate to...

812Preliminary Hazard Analysis

Preliminary hazard analysis (PHA) is a method for the identification of hazards at an early stage in the design process. Accounts of PHA are given in the CCPS Hazard Evaluation Guidelines and by Kavianian, Rao and Brown (1992). PHA is a requirement of the MIL-STD-882 System Safety Program. Since the early identification of hazards is of prime importance, many companies have some sort of technique for this purpose, a portion of which are called 'preliminary hazard analysis' the use of the term...

98 Dependent Failures

In the design of systems for reliability, use is made of redundancy and diversity of subsystems and components. In principle, the use of redundancy allows very high reliability to be obtained. The condition for this, however, is that the failures which occur are independent. If this is not so, then the design intent is defeated and the Figure 9.13 Event tree for release of LPG (after HSE, 1981a) Figure 9.13 Event tree for release of LPG (after HSE, 1981a) reliability may be less, sometimes...

1014 Hazard Models

An account has already been given of the early work of Simpson (1971) on the use of models for plant layout purposes. The hazard models described by him include models for two-phase flow and for vapour dispersion and criteria for thermal radiation, as described in Section 10.11. A set of hazard models specifically for use in plant layout has been given by Mecklenburgh (1985). A summary of the models in this hazard model system is given in Table 10.9. Some of the individual models are described...

614Quality Management

Increasingly, SLP is subject to the influence of quality assurance and total quality management. An account of these was given in Chapter 1. As described in Chapter 1, there is a strong trend for companies to adopt quality assurance (QA) throughout their operations and to seek accreditation. In the UK this means accreditation to BS 5750 1987. Since QA covers inputs to the company's activities, this requires that subcontractors and suppliers also address QA. QA affects all aspects of a company's...

172

Safe toxic limit in building (no jet) Woie Values in brackets are for the case where the release does not take the form of a jet Woie Values in brackets are for the case where the release does not take the form of a jet on all four sides and by spacing between plots and buildings of 15 m. Access for fire fighting vehicles should be over firm ground, should have sufficient road and gate widths, should give adequate clearance heights and should allow for the necessary turning and manoeuvring. The...

1015 Fire Protection

Plant layout can make a major contribution to the fire protection of the plant. This has a number of aspects. Plant layout for fire protection is covered in BS 5908 1990 Fire Precautions in the Chemical and Allied Industries. Also relevant are BS 5306 1976 Fire Extinguishing Installations and Equipment on Premises, particularly Part 1 on fire hydrants, and BS 5041 1987 Fire Hydrant Systems Equipment. An important earlier code, BS CP 3013 1974 Fire Precautions in Chemical Plant, is now...

53 Cost of Prevention

Some of the areas in which costs tend to be incurred to prevent loss are (1) management effort (2) research effort (3) design effort (4) process route (5) operational constraints (6) plant siting (7) plant layout (8) plant equipment (safety margins, materials, duplication) (9) process instrumentation (trip systems) (10) fire protection (11) inspection effort and (12) emergency planning. Since all aspects of a project have safety implications, any such list is somewhat arbitrary. Others are...

43 Risk Issues

High technology projects involve risks. These risks raise a number of issues including There is a growing literature on risk issues, which includes How Safe is Safe (Koshland, 1974), Of Acceptable Risk (Lowrance, 1976), The Acceptability of Risks (Council for Science and Society, 1977), An Anatomy of Risk (Rowe, 1977), Society, Technology and Risk Assessment (Conrad, 1980), Societal Risk Assessment (Schwing and Albers, 1980), Science, Technology and the Human Prospect (Starr and Ritterbush,...

818 Human Error Analysis

An important source of hazards and losses is maloperation of the plant, and other forms of operator error. There are a number of methods for addressing this problem. One of these is the hazop study which, as just described, utilizes aids such as the sequence diagram to discover potential for maloperation. Other methods which may be mentioned here are task analysis and action error analysis. The problem of human error is, however, very complex. It is considered in more detail in Chapter 14. Task...

1020 Ventilation

Where process plant is located inside a building, ventilation is required to provide a suitable atmosphere for personnel. The plant may generate heat which has to be removed. Any leaks of flammable or toxic materials need to be diluted. Ventilation is the subject of BS 5925 1990 Design of Buildings Ventilation Principles and Designing for Natural Ventilation. The previous version, BS 5925 1980, is that referred to in much of the ventilation literature the differences are not great. The problem...

Weibull distribution

Nelson (1967) R.A. Mitchell (1967) Hastings (1967-68) Shooman (1968a) Truscott (1970) Steiger (1971) Hinds et al. (1977) Kapur and Lamberson (1977) O'Connor (1977) Sherwin and Lees (1980) Guida (1985) Kekecioglu and Jacks (1985) P.W. Hale (1987) Lihou and Spence (1988) Extreme value theory, distribution R.A. Fisher and Tippett (1928) Cramer (1946) Gumbel (1958) B. Epstein (1960) Lloyd and Lipow (1962) Wiesner (1964) Ramachandran (FRS 1972 Fire Research Notes 910, 929, 943...

32

AIn the case of a buried tank, the tank wall distance is measured to the position on the plan of the tank wall or other items not more than 10 m below ground level. b In the case of a flare stack, the distances is a function of the flare stack tip height H, as shown in the last column. aIn the case of a buried tank, the tank wall distance is measured to the position on the plan of the tank wall or other items not more than 10 m below ground level. b In the case of a flare stack, the distances...

921 Risk Criteria

In order to evaluate a risk assessment it is necessary to have appropriate risk criteria. Some of the more philosophical aspects of risk are considered in Chapter 4. The treatment here is confined to a consideration of some of the principles which should underlie the choice of risk criteria and of some of the types of criterion, systems and numerical criterion values used or proposed. Accounts of risk criteria include those given in Dealing with Risk (R.F. Griffiths, 1981c), Risk Assessment. A...

Separation distances

Bradley (n.d., 1985) Armistead (1959) Dow Chemical Co. (1964, 1966a, 1976, 1980, 1987, 1994) Scharle (1965) Home Office (1968 1, 1971 2, 1973 4) Masso and Rudd (1968) Goller (1970) J.R. Hughes (1970) ICI RoSPA (1970 IS 74) Laska (1970) Simpson (1971) OIA (1972 Publication 631) HSE (1973 HSW Booklet 30) Mecklenburgh (1973, 1976, 1985) Unwin, Robins and Page (1974) Butragueno and Costello (1978) IP (1980 Eur. MCSP Pt 2, 1981 MCSP Pt 3, 1987 MCSP Pt 9) API (1981 Refinery Inspection Guide...

Use of References

The main list of references is given in the section entitled References, towards the end of the book. There are three other locations where references are to be found. These are Appendix 27 on standards and codes Appendix 28 on institutional publications and in the section entitled Loss Prevention Bulletin which follows the References. The basic method of referencing an author is by surname and date, e.g. Beranek (I960). Where there would otherwise be ambiguity, or where there are numerous...

24

A This is the net heat of combustion, which is the value obtained when the water formed is considered to be in the vapour state. b Heat of combustion Hc is equivalent to six times the heat of decomposition Hd. a This is the net heat of combustion, which is the value obtained when the water formed is considered to be in the vapour state. b Heat of combustion Hc is equivalent to six times the heat of decomposition Hd. GPH penalties, and the SPH factor (Fj) is the sum of all the SPH penalties. The...

Simplifide Piping And Instrument Diagram Of Methanator System Wells 1992

The SCRA provides guidance on priorities to be addressed in the design. It also provides an indication as to whether more detailed quantitative risk assessment is appropriate. Appreciable consequences Severity 2 Appreciable damage to plant No effect on business Reportable near miss incident under CIMAH a Injury to plant personnel Minor annoyance to public Minor consequences near miss Severity 1 Near-miss incident with significant quantity released a Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazards...

1022 Winterization

It is convenient to deal here with the protection of plant against severe winter conditions, or winterization. The winterization of process plants has been described by J.C. Davis (1979) and Fisch (1984), and the shut-down winterization of an ammonia plant has been described by Facer and Rich (1984). There are five basic techniques for winterization design and operating methods which avoid freezing, location of plant inside buildings, and use of insulation, heat tracing and internal heating...

915 Hazard Model Systems

Outrigger Civil Engineering

There are a number of hazard model collections and complete hazard assessment systems. These include These are now described in turn. 9.15.1 Vulnerability model system One major hazard assessment system is the vulnerability model (VM), later renamed the population vulnerability model (PVM), developed under contract for the US Coast Guard to investigate the possible effects of hazardous material spills. The basic VM is described by Eisenberg, Lynch and Breeding (1975) in a report entitled...

07

Mecklenburgh illustrates the application of his hazard models by giving for each a scenario and worked example, and for some of the outdoor cases he combines these into an assessment of the effects on site and off site. For this latter assessment he considers a set of scenarios which may be summarized as follows (1) Instantaneous release of flashing liquid from storage tank (a) Flammable liquid giving rise to unignited vapour cloud, or fireball, or vapour cloud explosion (b) Toxic liquid giving...

Pressure Nutsche Filter Hazop

(14) Equipment failure, flange leak, etc. Higher pressure in transfer line and settling tank Material loss adjacent to public highway Water sump fills up more quickly. Increased chance of water phase passing to reaction section Higher system pressure Increased rate of corrosion of tank base, sump and drain line Line cannot be completely drained or purged (k) Install thermal expansion relief on valved section (relief discharge route to be decided later in study) (1) Check whether there is...