Title 1s CO Nonattainment Program

Carbon monoxide (CO) is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuel, such as coal, fuel oil, natural gas, and gasoline. CO impairs the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood. The NAAQS is designed to protect against any harmful effect of CO. The leading source of CO in urban areas is motor vehicles. Other contributing stationary sources include home heating equipment and engines.

The CAAA requires that the EPA designate CO nonattainment areas as either Moderate or Serious. As with ozone, the classification is used to set the attainment deadline and certain mandatory control measures. The design values and primary standard attainment dates are shown in Table 15-3.

Table 15-3 Design Values and Primary Standard CO Attainment Dates

Design Values Threshold New Source Attainment

Classification (ppm)* # of Areas Tpy CO Offset Ratio Date

Serious 16.5 & greater 1 50 1 to 1 12/21/00

* 8-hr design standard measured in parts per million **As of December 9, 1996

Each state must implement an attainment plan that will contain control measures to attain the CO standard. The primary target of the CO standards is mobile sources. However, industrial sources of CO emissions in nonat-tainment areas are also subject to control requirements. The threshold for designation in a Moderate nonattain-ment area is the potential to emit 100 tpy. In Serious areas, the threshold level is set at 50 tpy.

Control technologies for stationary sources include improved combustion control and capture systems that reuse CO-rich exhaust gases as fuel and afterburners or oxidation catalysts to destroy CO in exhaust streams. An effective means of reducing CO is switching to cleaner fuels, notably natural gas for stationary sources. Motor vehicle controls are similar to those for VOC as both are the product of incomplete combustion. Switching to alternative fuels and gasoline containing oxygen, as well as adopting more stringent automobile inspection and maintenance (I&M) programs, are key CO control measures.

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