Corrodent Concentration

The most cost-effective method of reducing salt concentration levels is to dilute water-base drilling fluid with freshwater. Care must be taken to make sure that the makeup water is compatible with the system. The water must not contain high concentrations of undesirable corrodents. Gas Concentration. The principal source of oxygen and some carbon dioxide contamination is the surface part of the circulatory system. Care must be taken to reduce unnecessary aeration of the...

Corrosion And Scaling

A great number of specialized tools have evolved in drilling of oil and gas wells utilizing very different alloys specially suited for their service requirements. The main concern in designing the drilling equipment is controlling the high pressures and the ability to resist fractures. The fractures can be induced by low-temperature service of the surface equipment and fatigue failures of subsurface equipment. Most of the drilling equipment components are made from A1SI 4,100 and 4,300 series...

Drilling Fluids General Trouble Shooting [25

Viscosity controlled Mud weight too high Funnel viscosity too high high PV high gels and high solids High funnel viscosity, high YP, high gels normal PV and solids Fluid loss too high, viscosity can be increased Fluid loss too high, viscosity controlled Fluid loss too high thick, soft filter cake low Methylene Blue Test. Treatment with filtration agent does not help Foam on surface at mud pits. No reduction in mud weight Reduction in mud weight. Increased funnel viscosity. Pump pressure drops....

Mud Pumps

Mud Pump Handbook

Mud pumps consume more than 60 of all the horsepower used in rotary drilling. Mud pumps are used to circulate drilling fluid through the mud circulation system while drilling. A pump with two fluid cylinders, as shown in Figure 4-99, is called a duplex pump. A three-fluid-cylinder pump, as shown in Figure 4-100, is called a triplex pump. Duplex pumps are usually double action, and triplex pumps are usually single action. Mud pumps consist of a power input end and a fluid output end. The power...

Figure 4396 Liner types [161

The casing joints of the liner are placed in the well in the normal manner. The liner hanger is made up to the top of the liner. The top of the liner hanger is made up to drillpipe and the whole assembly (i.e. liner, liner hanger and drillpipe) is lowered into the well. After the liner is at the desirable location in the well, the drillpipe is connected to the rig pumps and mud circulation carried out. This allows conditioning of the drilling mud in the well prior to the cementing operation and...

310000

The Maximum PutI is based upon the ultimate tensile strength in the pin thread area with a safety factor ol three The Maximum PutI is based upon the ultimate tensile strength in the pin thread area with a safety factor ol three Weight on Bit and Rotary Speed for Core Bits Weight on Bit. Figure 4-147 shows the drilling weights for diamond core bits in various formations. These are average values determined in field tests 50 . The proper weight on the bit for each core run can be determined by...

Bit Hydraulic Horsepower

Minimum bit HHP to prevent hydraulic flounder 20 , (Courtesy Smith International, Inc.) NOTE PLACE POINT WHERE CONTROL BIT RUN IS LOCATED USING SHIP CURVE, FIT Q-LINE BELOW POINT MOVE SHIP CURVE UP TO POINT. EFFECT OF A CHANGE IN HYDRAULICS CAN THEN BE TRACED. POINTS OF COMPLETE BIT CLEANING ARE ON THE MAXIMUM HYDRAULICS CURVE. Figure 4-105. Required bit hydraulic horsepower 21 . (Courtesy Hant Publications. All rights reserved.) a. To remove rock bit cuttings from the bottom of...

Normal Single Stage Casing Cementing

Under good rig operating conditions, casing can be run into the hole at the rate of from 1,000 to 2,000 ft hr. It is often necessary to circulate the drilling mud in the hole prior to running the casing string. This is to assure that all the cutting and any borehole wall prices have been removed. However, the longer a borehole remains open, the more problems will occur with the well. Prior to running the casing string into the well the mill varnish should be removed from the outer surface of...

435 462 1815 264 33

Compute the maximum acceleration that the instrument will accept at 2 and at 10 Hz. b. Compute the peak to peak motion which can be applied to the instrument at 10 and 200 Hz. c. Compare the 10-Hz values. At what frequency will the peak to peak data of the low frequency be consistent with the acceleration data of the high frequency d. The package is held in a housing with several rubber rings laterally assumed to behave like perfect springs. Two different ring stiffnesses are available with...

R Radial Flow X Cross Flow 0 Other

Hydraulic design code for fixed-cutter bits 54 , (Courtesy SPE.) The hydraulic design is described by two components the type of fluid outlet and the flow distribution. A 3 x 3 matrix of orifice types and flow distributions defines 9 numeric hydraulic design codes. The orifice type varies from changeable jets to fixed ports to open throat from left to right in the matrix. The flow distribution varies from bladed to ribbed to open face from top to bottom. There is usually a close...

Cause of Casing Troubles

1.30 The more common causes of casing troubles are as follows a. Improper selection for depth and pressures encountered. b. Insufficient inspection of each length of casing or of field-shop threads. c. Abuse in mill, transportation and field handling. d. Nonobservance of good rules in running and pulling casing. e. Improper cutting of field-shop threads. f. The use of poorly manufactured couplings for replacements and additions. h. Excessive torquing of casing to force it through tight places...

Rotary Equipment

Rotary equipment refers to the pieces of surface equipment in drilling operations that actually rotate or impart rotating motion to the drill pipe. This equipment includes the upper members of the drill string such as the swivel, swivel sub kelly cock, kelly, lower kelly valve, and kelly sub (Figure 4-87), as well as the kelly bushing and rotatary table 13 . The swivel (Figure 4-88) suspends the kelly, allows for rotation of the kelly and drill string, and provides a connection for the rotary...

Glossary of Terms Used in Directional Drilling

The glossary of terms used in directional drilling 131 has been developed by the API Subcommittee on Controlled Deviation Drilling under the jurisdiction of the American Petroleum Institute Production Department's Executive Committee on Drilling and Production Practice. The most frequently used terms are listed below. Angle of buildup Rate of change ( 100 ft) of the inclination angle in the section of the hole where the inclination from the vertical is increasing. Angle drop-off Rate of change...

Phase Behavior of a Pure Substance

It is evident from the preceding example that a pure substance can have at most three coexisting phases at equilibrium. At temperatures and pressures other than the triple point, a pure substance may exist either as a single phase (e.g., solid, liquid, or vapor) or as a two-phase system. Application of the phase rule for (P 1 gives 3r e- (P + 2 l- l+ 2 2, indicating that two intensive variables (P and T) can be varied simultaneously in the single-phase region. On the other hand, in the...

Derricks And Portable Masts

Derricks and portable masts provide the clearance and structural support necessary for raising and lowering drill pipe, casing, rod strings, etc., during drilling and servicing operations. Standard derricks are bolted together at the well site, and are considered nonportable. Portable derricks, which do not require full disassembly for transport, are termed masts. The derrick or mast must be designed to safely carry all loads that are likely to be used during the structure's life 1 , The...

1

Relations Between Trigonometric Functions of Angles Single Angle sin2x + cos2x 1 tan x (sin x) (cos x) cot x 1 (tan x) sin(-x) -sin x, cos(-x) cos x, tan(-x) -tan x sin(x + y) sin x cos y + cos x sin y sin(x - y) sin x cos y - cos x sin y cos(x + y) cos x cos y - sin x sin y cos(x - y) cos x cos y + sin x sin y tan(x + y) (tan x + tan y) (1 - tan x tan y) tan(x - y) (tan x - tan y) (1 + tan x tan y) cot(x + y) (cot x cot y - 1) (cot y + cot x) cot(x - y) (cot x cot y + 1) (cot y - cot x) sin x...

Table 449 Extended Bentonite Mud System [28

Fresh water Bentonite extender Bentonite Soda ash Caustic soda as they compete too effectively with the extender for the adsorption sites on the clay. A small excess of soda ash, of 0.57 kg m3 0.2 lb bbl , should be maintained to ensure the calcium level remains below 80 mg 1 and to improve the efficiency of the extender. This level of soda ash will produce the required pH in most cases. The system can be weighted to a maximum of 11 lb gal provided the ratio of drill solids to clay solids is...