Za50s Engine

Rising demand for compact, high output medium speed diesel propulsion installations particularly from cruise and ferry sectors stimulated Sulzer to introduce in 1995 a larger bore derivative to complement the successful ZA40S engine. This 500 mm bore 660 mm stroke ZA50S design extended the power range of the programme to 21 600 kW at 450 rev min from six, eight and nine inline and V12-, 14-, 16- and 18-cylinder models (Figures 26.16 and 26.17). The ZA50S engine is no longer in the Wartsila...

6 Engine and plant selection

Choosing a propulsion engine or engines and the most suitable plant configuration for a given newbuilding or retrofit project is not a simple decision. It dictates careful study of the machinery options available and the operating profile of the ship. In the past the shipowner or designer had the straight choice of a direct-coupled low speed two-stroke engine driving a fixed pitch propeller or a geared medium speed four-stroke engine driving either a fixed or controllable pitch (CP) propeller....

Horsepower

Despite the introduction of the SI system, in which power is measured in kilowatts (kW), horsepower cannot yet be discarded altogether. Power is the rate of doing work. In linear measure it is the mean force acting on a piston multiplied by the distance it moves in a given time. The force here is the mean pressure acting on the piston. This is obtained by averaging the difference in pressure in the cylinder between corresponding points during the compression and expansion strokes. It can be...

Rta8

Figure 12.7 Advances in key parameters of RTA series engines since their introduction. (The RTX54 is a Sulzer research engine) Three fuel injection valves per cylinder were specified for the RTA62U and RTA72U models (though not, because of its smaller bore size, for the RTA52U model which retained two valves per cylinder). The reported benefits of the triple-valve configuration are a more uniform temperature distribution around the principal combustion space components (cylinder cover, liner...

B

Figure 28.6 Improved cooling arrangement for GMT BL550 cylinder liner (B) over original configuration Bore-cooled version Cooling hole detail with internal diaphragm Figure 28.6 Improved cooling arrangement for GMT BL550 cylinder liner (B) over original configuration The composite pistons (steel crown and aluminium alloy skirt) carry three compression and one oil scraper ring in chromed grooves. The upper two compression rings were increased in thickness to withstand the higher combustion...

Lgf And Lgb Engines

The oil crisis in 1973 and the resulting massive increase in fuel prices stimulated enginebuilders to develop newer engines with reduced specific fuel consumption. B& W's answer was the L-GF series combining constant pressure turbocharging with an increase in piston stroke an increase in stroke of about 22 per cent results in a lowering of the shaft speed by around 18 per cent, leading to greater propulsive efficiency when using larger diameter propellers and around 7 per cent increase in...

Lubricating Oils

Significantly improved thermal efficiency, fuel economy and ability to burn poor quality bunkers have resulted from the intensive development of low speed crosshead and high medium speed trunk piston engine designs in the past 20 years. Further progress in performance and enhanced lifetimes can be expected from the exploitation of higher firing pressures and better combustion characteristics. Such advances pose a continuing challenge to engine lubricant formulators, however higher pressures and...

25 Man Bw

SEMT-Pielstick of France can claim a pioneering role in the development and promotion of medium speed engines for propulsion through in-house production and licensees in key shipbuilding countries, notably Japan. The PC medium speed design interests of Paris-based SEMT (Soci t des tudes de Machines Thermiques) are now under the umbrella of Germany's MAN B& W Diesel group. The Pielstick marque originated in the early 1950s as part of a family of monobloc multiple-crankshaft engines designated...

New W20 layout

Seven years after Wartsila 20 engine production started some design revisions were made, mainly involving the ancillary equipment and with the aim of improving environmental friendliness and adaptability to customer needs. The main components, such as pistons, bearings and crankshaft, remained untouched. The new layout was introduced at end-2000. A drawback of the original layout was the paper cartridges used for lube oil filtration. The number of filter cartridges per engine varied between two...

Conditionbased maintenance

A new tool for managing condition-based maintenance of Sulzer two-stroke engines combines the expert knowledge and wide experience of Wartsila Corporation engineers. The CBM Management tool is offered in three different solutions, depending on the extent that customers want to outsource this activity. A wide range of products for diesel engine monitoring, trend analysis, diagnosis and management already support condition-based maintenance. CBM Management takes these a step further, with the aim...

Rta Design Features

The RTA design benefited from principles proven in earlier generations of Sulzer R-type engines. The key elements are A sturdy engine structure designed for low stresses and small deflections comprises a bedplate, columns and cylinder block pretensioned by vertical tie rods. The single-wall bedplate has an integrated thrust block and incorporates standardized large surface main bearing shells. The robust A-shaped columns are assembled with stiffening plates or are of monobloc design. The single...

Achieving Quieter Enginerooms

On the basis of engine noise measurements and frequency analyses, MAN B& W Diesel explains, it can be determined that noise emissions from two-stroke engines primarily originate from The turbocharger, air and gas pulsations. Fuel oil injection systems. The chain drive also contributes to a certain extent. The best way of reducing engine-related noise is, naturally, to reduce the vibrational energy at the source or, if this is neither feasible nor adequate, to attenuate the noise as close to...

Torsional Vibrations

Torsional vibration involves the whole shaft system of the propulsion plant, embracing engine crankshaft, intermediate shafts and propeller shaft, as well as engine running gear, flywheel, propeller and (where appropriate) reduction gearing, flexible couplings, clutches and power take-off drives. The varying gas pressure in the cylinders during the working cycle and the crankshaft connecting rod mechanism create a varying torque in the crankshaft. It is these variations that cause the...

Crosshead

The crosshead (Figure 13.6) is short and rigid and the bearings are so constructed that the bearing pressure between journal and bearing is distributed evenly over the entire length of the bearing. The bearing Figure 13.4 Cross-section of K90GF engine Figure 13.4 Cross-section of K90GF engine pressure is smaller than previously and the peripheral speed is higher, which improves the working conditions of the bearings. Interchangeable bearing shells of steel with a 1 mm whitemetal lining are...

Doxford low speed engines

The last British-designed low speed two-stroke engine the distinctive Doxford opposed-piston design was withdrawn from production in 1980 but a few of the J-type remain in service and merit description. In its final years the company also designed and produced the unusual three-cylinder 58JS3C model, which developed 4050 kW at 220 rev min and was specified to power several small containerships. The 58JS3C design (Figure 14.16) was based on the J-type but with refinements addressing the higher...

T C R

A notable COGAG plant powers the Stena HSS 1500-class high speed passenger vehicle ferries, whose service speed of 40 knots is secured by twin General Electric LM2500 and twin LM1600 gas turbines arranged in father-and-son configurations with a total output of 68 000 kW. All four turbines are deployed for the maximum speed mode, with the larger or smaller pairs engaged alone for intermediate speeds this enables the turbines to operate close to their optimum efficiency at different vessel...

Black sludge formation

A problem in medium speed engines may arise from the contamination of lube oil by the combustion blow-by gases and or by direct raw fuel dilution. Higher fuel pump pressures in modern engines have contributed to increased fuel leakage analyses of used lube oils from engines running on heavy fuel oil have indicated an average HFO contamination of 2 per cent in some cases, levels of up to 15 per cent were detected. Most heavy fuel oils supplied today emerge from cracking installations. The...

Antivibration Mountings

Over the past 25 years the use of elastomer-based mounting systems to suppress or attenuate noise and vibration in ships has advanced both in technical sophistication and growth of application. Rubber-to-metal bonded systems are the most commonly applied anti-vibration mountings, and also deliver the highest performance rating for a given size. Shipboard installations mainly benefit propulsion engines, gensets and diverse ancillary machinery, such as ventilation fans, compressors, pumps, sewage...

Daihatsu

A Japanese contender in the domestic and international small bore medium speed engine arenas, Daihatsu evolved its current programme from the PS series which was developed in 1950 and helped establish the company as a major supplier of auxiliary diesel engines. Some 10 000 examples of the PS-26 model, for example, were sold worldwide. The PS was succeeded in 1967 by a second generation engine, the DS series, whose development goals focused on high output, low specific fuel consumption and...

Low speed engines introduction

Low speed two-stroke engine designers have invested heavily to maintain their dominance of the mainstream deepsea propulsion sector formed by tankers, bulk carriers and containerships. The long-established supremacy reflects the perceived overall operational economy, simplicity and reliability of single, direct-coupled crosshead engine plants. Other factors are the continual evolution of engine programmes by the designer licensors in response to or anticipation of changing market requirements,...

Tje

A determination to secure small-ship propulsion business led in 1991 to the introduction of a 330 mm bore 1050 mm stroke LSII design (Figure 11.3). The series succeeded the 370 mm bore LA models which pioneered the modern 'mini-bore' two-stroke engine from the late 1970s for small general cargo tonnage, tankers, colliers, feeder containerships and even large fishing vessels. The longer stroke and more advanced UEC 33LSII engine now develops 566 kW cylinder at 215 rev min and covers an output...

V

But a drawback of the hydraulically-adjustable top bracing is its higher first cost over the traditional mechanical bracing. An improved mechanical top bracing, incorporating two beams, was designed and tested in service from early 1997 (Figure 10.29). This is rigid in the athwartship direction and sufficiently flexible in the longitudinal direction to adapt to movements between engine and hull. Figure 10.29 Improved mechanical top bracing design Figure 10.29 Improved mechanical top bracing...

Maximum Continuous Rating Layout Diagram

The scales are logarithmic which means that, in this diagram, exponential curves like propeller curves (3rd power), constant mean effective pressure curves (1st power) and constant ship speed curves (0.15 to 0.30 power) are straight lines. The constant ship speed lines, shown at the uppermost part of the diagram, indicate the power required at various propeller speeds in order to keep the same ship speed, provided that, for each ship speed, the optimum propeller...

Medium speed engine system oils

Centrifugal Separators Handbook

Lubricating medium speed trunk piston engines is considered much more of an exact science than lubricating low speed crosshead engine cylinders. Sulphurous byproducts from the combustion of high sulphur fuel are countered by increasing the amount of over-based additive in the formulation to give an oil of higher alkalinity, as measured by TBN. But this is not quite as simple as merely adding alkaline additives. Research is carried out to establish a balanced blend of the many functionally...

Blower Surge

Too low an air-mass flow at a given speed, or pressure ratio, will cause the blower to surge, while too high a mass flow causes the blower to choke, resulting in loss of pressure ratio and efficiency at a given speed. The blower impeller, as it rotates, accelerates the air flow through the impeller, and the air leaves the blower with a velocity that is convertible into a pressure at the diffuser. If, for any reason, the rate of air flow decreases, then its velocity at the blower discharge will...

Wartsila

Introduced in 1992, the 200 mm bore 280 mm stroke Wartsila 20 engine (Figure 27.10) was designed primarily as a genset drive to replace the long-established Wartsila Vasa 22 but small-ship propulsion installations have also been logged. An output per cylinder of 130 kW to 165 kW was initially offered, depending on the nominal speed (720-1000 rev min), but subsequent power rises took the rating to 180 kW cylinder (end-1998) and 200 kW cylinder at 1000 rev min (2003). The rating increases were...

Allen Rolls Royce

The British designer Allen, a Rolls-Royce company, fields the S12 VS12 and the S37 VS37 medium speed engine series which have evolved over many years. The S12 is a 241 mm bore 305 mm stroke design produced in four-, six-, eight- and nine-cylinder in-line versions covering a power band from 507 kW to 1584 kW at 720-1000 rev min. The 325 mm bore 370 mm stroke S37 VS37 design (Figure 17.1) is available in six, eight and nine in-line and V12- and V16-cylinder forms to deliver outputs up to 5255 kW....

Gas Turbine Maintenance

Gas turbines have nominal power ratings established for marketing purposes. A power rating at particular ambient conditions determines Figure 31.22 Fuel savings from ICR cycle WR-21 over the power range compared with simple-cycle gas turbine the internal engine temperatures and the resulting expected service life of components exposed to these temperatures. These 'hot section' components include the combustor and the high pressure turbine blades and vanes. The life of the hot section components...

Common Rail Injection Systems

In mechanical fuel injection systems the injection pressure is a function of engine speed and load. At low load, therefore, the pressure drops and the result is very large fuel droplets which survive as such until they contact the combustion space surfaces. Common rail fuel injection technology offers the possibility to maintain a high injection pressure (and hence small droplets) at all loads down to idling (Figure 8.18). Common rail systems existed in the early 1900s in mechanically-activated...

500

600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 Figure 30.32 Performance map for Paxman 18VP185 engine jacket water pumps, the governor, overspeed governor and fuel lift pump further auxiliary power take-off capability is incorporated for different applications. The PTO at the free end will accept either gear-driven or belt-driven pumps and alternators. The VP185 is supplied as a complete assembly with engine-mounted jacket water and lubricating oil heat exchangers to simplify installation...

Gasdiesel Engines

Atomizer Fuel Engine Man

Wartsila gas-diesel (GD) technology differs from the dual-fuel diesel concept in using direct, high pressure injection of gas and 3 per cent pilot fuel for its ignition. GD medium speed engines can be operated on heavy fuel and diesel oils, crude oil directly from the well or natural gas supply can be switched instantly and automatically from one fuel to another without shutdown. Conversions of existing engines from normal heavy fuel mode to natural gas diesel oil operation can be executed with...

Fourstroke Engines

Exhaust gas turbocharged single-acting four-stroke marine engines can deliver three times or more power than naturally aspirated engines of the same speed and dimensions. Even higher power output ratios are achieved on some engine types employing two-stage turbocharging where turbochargers are arranged in series. At one time almost all four-stroke engines operated on the pulse system, though constant pressure turbocharging has since become more common as it provides greater fuel economy while...

RTA96C service experience

Some cases of main bearing damage were restricted to a specific series of containerships, and involved the local breaking-out of whitemetal in the lower shells and some local fretting. The fretting problem was Figure 12.28 Side elevation of a 14-cylinder RTA96C engine Figure 12.28 Side elevation of a 14-cylinder RTA96C engine solved by applying a so-called key-slot solution with the aim of increasing the radial forces pressing the bearing shell into the girder, and by some other small design...

713

The LT circuit serves the low temperature part of the charge air cooler and the built-on lube oil cooler. It is fully integrated with engine parts such as the LT water pump with pump cover module, the LT thermostatic valve with the lube oil module, and transfer channels in the engine block. In addition, the LT circuit provides separate cooling of the exhaust valve seats and a lower seat valve temperature, thus promoting long lifetimes for these components. Directly-driven pumps ensure safe...

Mitsubishi

A Japanese challenge in the aero-derived marine gas turbine market was spurred by the country's Techno-Superliner (TSL) fast freight carrier project of the early 1990s which called for an indigenous high output prime mover with a very low weight. In response, Mitsubishi created the MFT-8 from the marriage of its own power turbine and the GG-8 gas generator from Turbo Power and Marine Systems, a subsidiary of Pratt & Whitney (Figure 31.15). Compressor inlet Front compressor Compressor...

Cylinder lubricants and low sulphur fuels

SOx Emission Control Areas (SECAs) see under the section on Fuels given above impact on cylinder lubrication in low speed engines since the fuel dictated to meet emission controls is generally limited to a maximum 1.5 per cent sulphur content. Concern that contemporary cylinder oils (whether 70 BN or lower) might not be the best choice for service with low sulphur fuels was addressed by MAN B& W Diesel and BP Marine in answering these questions Should a newbuilding be specified with a dual...

Waterbased Techniques

Water-fuel emulsions injected via the fuel valve achieve a significant reduction in NOx production. The influence varies with the engine type but generally 1 per cent of water reduces NOx emissions by 1 per cent. Water can also be added to the combustion space through separate nozzles or by the stratified segregated injection of water and fuel from the same nozzle. Direct Water Injection (DWI) is effective in reducing NOx by adding mass and stealing heat from the combustion process when the...

Electronic Fuel Injection

It was inevitable that electronic fuel injection technology, successfully introduced for high speed diesel engines, would eventually be applied to benefit medium speed designs. Lucas Bryce (now Delphi Bryce) first demonstrated electronic fuel injection in the late 1970s, reportedly showing that improved fuel consumption and emissions could be achieved. The market was not ready, however the technology was new and there was then no environmental legislation to provide the incentive to improve...

Turbocharger Retrofits

The benefits of turbocharger retrofits are promoted by manufacturers, arguing that new generation models with significantly higher overall efficiencies than their predecessors can underwrite a worthwhile return on investment. Retrofitting older engines with new high efficiency turbochargers can be economically justified when one or more of the following conditions prevail, according to ABB Turbo Systems The engine suffers from high exhaust temperatures air manifold pressure does not rise to its...

Designing Modern Medium Speed Engines

Investment in the development of a new medium speed engine may be committed for a number of reasons. The enginebuilder may need to extend its portfolio with larger or smaller designs to complete the available range, to exploit recently-developed equipment and systems, or to enhance the reliability, availability and economy of the programme. As an alternative to a new design, it may be possible to upgrade an existing engine having the potential for improved power ratings, lower operational...

Expert system support

MaK offers intelligent expert systems to lower operational costs, minimize downtime and increase availability. DICARE is a Windows-based expert system providing real-time engine diagnosis. It describes and diagnoses the actual engine condition and provides references for condition-based maintenance. Remote data transfer to a shipowner's shore base is facilitated by a communication module additionally, MaK offers a link to its service department for evaluating and interpreting the data. DIMOS is...

Rlb

The four-cylinder 540 mm bore 2150 mm stroke engine had a stroke bore ratio approaching 4 1 and could operate with mean effective pressures of up to 20 bar, maximum cylinder pressures up to 180 bar and mean piston speeds up to 8.5 m sec. Operating without a camshaft reportedly the first large two-stroke engine to do so the RTX54 was equipped with combined mechanical, hydraulic, electronic (mechatronics) systems for fuel injection, exhaust valve lift, cylinder lubrication and starting, as well...

Rk270 Engine Details

The bedplate is machined from a high grade iron casting. Transverse diaphragms for each main bearing provide rigid support for the crankshaft, and angled joint faces ensure positive locking of the main bearing caps in the bedplate. The crankshaft is machined from a single-piece alloy steel forging with bolted-on balance weights. There is an integral forged coupling flange for the flywheel, and the camshaft drive gear is split to facilitate replacement. The main bearings are pre-finished,...

M Man Bw low 10 speed engines

MAN B& W Diesel's roots are closely entwined with the early days of the diesel engine through both its German and Danish branches, respectively MAN and Burmeister & Wain. Both groups evolved distinctive low speed two-stroke crosshead engine designs before MAN acquired control of B& W in 1980. MAN subsequently discontinued the development of its own loop-scavenged engines at Augsburg and centred all low speed design and R& D operations in Copenhagen, pursuing the refinement of the...

RTA84TB and D versions

Following the introduction of the RTA48T and RTA58T models in 1995, the same design concepts were applied to the RTA84T 'Tanker' engine originally introduced in May 1991 resulting in a Version B in 1996. Easier manufacturing and enhanced service behaviour were realised, with no change in power output. In July 1998 a lower specific fuel consumption (down by 2 g kWh) was gained by applying 'low port' cylinder liners (scavenging air inlet ports with a reduced height) in combination with higher...

Calculated carbon aromaticity index CCAI

The ignition quality of residual fuels is more difficult to predict than distillate fuels because they comprise blends of many different components but the ignition quality of such fuels may be ranked by determining the Calculated Carbon Aromaticity Index from density and viscosity measurements. It should be noted, however, that the ignition performance of residual fuels is mainly related to engine design and operational factors. Formulae and nomograms for CCAI determination are published by...

1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1994

Figure 7.10 The total efficiency of successive ABB VTR turbocharger generations has increased significantly operating under severe loading conditions, with reliability and minimal maintenance. ABB Turbo Systems' current programme embraces the following VTR series designed for operation with engines delivering from around 700 kW up to 18 500 kW per turbocharger. VTC series particularly favoured where compactness is required, serving engines with outputs from 1000 kW to 3200 kW per turbocharger....

Mitsui

A major licensee of MAN B& W Diesel in the production of MC low speed engines, Mitsui also offered its own 420 mm bore 450 mm stroke medium speed design whose last version was designated the L V42MA series. The launch of the Japanese group's earlier venture in the four-stroke sector, the 600 mm bore 60M design with a rating of 1120 kW cylinder, unfortunately coincided with the 1973 oil crisis which undermined its market. The smaller bore L V42M design, however, benefited from that ill-fated...

58

The RTA60C engine was designed from the outset to smooth its acceptance of Sulzer RT-flex fully electronically-controlled fuel injection and exhaust valve systems, which eliminate the camshaft and individual fuel pumps (see below). The debut orders for RTA60C engines in December 2000 specified RT-flex versions. At end-2002 Wartsila Corporation announced a joint venture with Mitsubishi to design and develop a new small bore low speed engine. The Japanese group, which designs and builds its own...

Spex turbocharging

Swirl-Ex turbocharging a constant pressure system with an in-built diffusor was specified for early Wartsila 46 engines. It demonstrated high efficiency but service experience showed up a disadvantage due to the large volume in the exhaust pipe which made the load pick-up slower than the standard in other Wartsila engines. A faster turbocharging system based on a single pipe with a much smaller volume was therefore developed, resulting in the Spex (single pipe exhaust) system. This offers a...

PA6B STC design

High rigidity without compromising overall engine weight is achieved by a stiff one-piece crankcase (Figure 30.34) of nodular cast iron specially treated for shock resistance, with transverse bolt connections between both crankcase sides through the underslung-type bearing caps. Integrated longitudinal steel piping supplies lubricating oil to the main bearings. Figure 30.34 SEMT-Pielstick PA6B STC crankcase Figure 30.34 SEMT-Pielstick PA6B STC crankcase Large dimension main journals yield a...

3600 series

A standard specification 3600 series engine (Figure 19.1) features the following key components Cylinder block a one-piece casting of heavily ribbed, weldable grey iron alloy. The intake plenum runs the full engine length, providing even air distribution to the cylinders. Crankshaft a press forging, induction hardened and regrindable. A counterweight for each cylinder is welded to the crankshaft and then ultrasonically examined to assure weld integrity. The crankshaft end flanges are identical...

F

Figure 10.16 New Oros-shaped combustion chamber geometry (right) has contributed to reduced temperature measurements Upper piston ring with double-lap S-seal and Controlled Pressure Relief (CPR) gaps Even heat distribution on 2nd piston ring 2nd, 3rd and 4th piston rings with oblique cut ring gaps New piston ring material RVK-C for 50-26 and RVK with plasma coating on 98-60 Upper piston ring with double-lap S-seal and Controlled Pressure Relief (CPR) gaps Even heat distribution on 2nd piston...

Ruston MAN BW

A programme embracing three medium speed designs the RK215, RK270 and RK280 series was developed and produced by Ruston Diesels, a pioneering British enginebuilder which was a member of the Alstom Engines group until acquired by MAN B& W Diesel AG of Germany in June 2000. The RK270 engine entered service in 1982, the 270 mm bore 305 mm stroke design inheriting the pedigree of the 254 mm bore RK series which originated in the 1930s and continued in the programme as an upgraded RKC series also...

428

The 'new generation' programme was headed in 1984 by the 580 mm bore 640 mm stroke L58 64 series whose designers sought a high overall operating economy, reliability, ease of maintenance, component durability and unrestricted heavy fuel compatibility. The rugged (Figures 22.1 and 22.3) result can be contrasted with MAN B& W Diesel's previous large bore engine, the 520 mm bore 52 55B (Figure 22.4). Among the main features of the L58 64 and its 400 mm and 480 mm bore derivatives is a stiff...

Programme Expansion

New models have entered the MC programme since its launch in response to propulsion market trends at both ends of the power spectrum. A notable addition in 1986 the S26MC series took the low speed engine deep into small-ship propulsion territory, offering an output per cylinder of 365 kW at 250 rev min. The nominal power of the 260 mm bore 980 mm stroke design has since been raised to 400 kW at 250 rev min and the four- to twelve-cylinder programme covers an output range from 1100 kW to 4800...

Pc42b Design

The latest version of the 570 mm bore PC4 series, the PC4-2B design, has a 660 mm stroke and develops 1325 kW cylinder at 430 rev min on a mean effective pressure of 22 bar. The production programme embraces V10-, 12-, 16- and 18-cylinder models covering a power band up to 23 850 kW (Figures 25.2 and 25.10). A specific fuel consumption of 176 g kWh is reported. Progressive improvements have benefited the PC4 design since the first example entered service in 1977, the refinements focusing on the...

Miller system for 32FX

The potential of the 32FX design was demonstrated by a development project to create a lightweight, high performance 320 mm bore medium speed engine series with a weight power ratio of 4 kg kW yielding outputs from around 8000 kW to 13 000 kW. Using the established 32CX engine as a basis, Niigata reportedly achieved a rating of 769 kW cylinder at 1030 rev min from the 32FX variant. High output achieved by traditional development routes, Niigata explains, is accompanied by an increase in...

Allen 5000 series

Cylinder Engine Cross Section

A completely new medium speed engine was launched in 1998, the 320 mm bore 410 mm stroke Allen 5000 series having an output of 525 kW cylinder to cover a power range from 3150 kW to 10 500 kW at 720 750 rev min from in-line six and eight and V10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20-cylinder models. The V12 and V16 versions were released in 1998 (Figure 17.5), the other configurations planned to follow Figure 17.5 Cross-section of Allen 5000 series engine Figure 17.5 Cross-section of Allen 5000 series engine...

Pc26b Design

The most recent manifestation of SEMT-Pielstick's 400 mm bore PC2 medium speed engine is the 500 mm stroke PC2-6B design which develops 615 kW cylinder at 500-520 rev min. An output range up to 11 340 kW is covered by six, seven, eight and nine in-line and V45- degree 10-, 12-, 14-, 16- and 18-cylinder models (Figures 25.3 and 25.4) a V20-cylinder version was also planned. The PC2-6B engine retains the same overall envelope for propulsion installations as the shorter stroke (460 mm) PC2-6...

Cylinder oils

The cylinder conditions in the latest designs of low speed crosshead engines impose a higher maximum pressure, higher mean effective pressure and higher cycle temperature than previous generations. In addition, the combined effect of a longer piston stroke and lower engine rotational speed exposes the cylinder oil film to higher temperatures for a longer period of time. The diversity of engine designs, operating conditions and worldwide bunker fuel qualities means there can never be a single...

29 trunk piston engines

Trunk Piston Engine

The marine diesel propulsion market is dominated by direct-coupled low speed two-stroke crosshead engines and geared high medium speed four-stroke trunk piston engines but some Japanese and east Asian regional operators of coastal shortsea, fishing and small oceangoing vessels appreciate the merits of a 'hybrid' alternative the low speed four-stroke trunk piston engine. Low speed four-stroke engine designs, a traditional Japanese speciality, are characterized by simple and rugged construction...

Post1997 Service Experience

A service experience report covering mainly larger bore MC and MCC engines commissioned after 1997 indicated that a significant increase in reliability and longer times-between-overhauls had resulted from continuous development and updating. The following contributions were highlighted A number of measures have contributed to positive developments in the cylinder condition in recent years, notably the Oros combustion chamber, high topland pistons, the piston cleaning (PC) ring, controlled...

Uec Design Details

Structural and design details are exemplified by the UEC 75LSII and 85LSII engines (Figure 11.10). The bedplate and column are of simple welded monoblock construction, and the partition for each cylinder consists of a single welded plate. Side forces are supported by horizontal steel ribs arranged behind the guide bar. The pistons are of the well Figure 11.10 Construction of UEC 75LSII engine Figure 11.10 Construction of UEC 75LSII engine proven central support type and are fitted with four...

Automotivederived Engines

Marinized automotive-derived high speed engines are popular for small craft propulsion and genset drives on larger ships, where their ruggedness and reliability (based on numerous truck applications) are appreciated. Swedish truck engine specialist SCANIA launched its most powerful-ever marine engine in 2001, the DI16M design replacing the long-established DI14M series. The new 16-litre engine exploits an extra two litres of displacement in a package that is both shorter and lower than its...

Types of cylinder wear

Cylinder lubricants are an essential component in the control of liner and piston ring wear in low speed crosshead engines. High wear rates can be caused by corrosive, abrasive and adhesive wear, the conditions prevailing in the combustion space being the key influence on the type of wear experienced. In older engine designs, Castrol Marine explains, the wear was predominantly corrosive but in the latest engine designs it is now largely adhesive wear. Traditionally, cylinder oils had high...

Bunker quality testing

Onboard test kits are available to allow ship's staff to carry out a range of tests during or after bunkering or during storage (if fuel stratification is suspected), for checking purifier or clarifier efficiency, for determining the cause of excessive sludging at the separators, if water ingress into the fuel is suspected, or when transferring bunkers to a new tank. The most comprehensive kits can detect catalytic fines and the presence of microbes, and test comparative viscosity,...

Large Bore Engines

Piston Topland

The structural design of the K98MC, K98MC-C, S90MC-C and S80MC-C engines is primarily based on that of the compact S-MC-C medium bore models. The main differences between the established K90MC MC-C engines and the new design are as follows All the new large bore engines are designed with thin-shell main bearings of whitemetal. The rigidity of the bearing housing was increased substantially to reduce stress levels and deformations. Furthermore, the change from the traditional stay bolts to the...

Dieselelectric Drive

An increasingly popular form of indirect drive is diesel-electric propulsion based on multi-medium speed main gensets. New generations of AC AC drive systems exploiting cycloconverter or synchroconverter technology have widened the potential of electric propulsion after years of confinement to specialist niches, such as icebreakers, research vessels and cablelayers. The diesel-electric mode is now firmly entrenched in large cruise ships and North Sea shuttle tanker propulsion, references have...

Sulzer low speed engines

Flex Sulzer

Active in both four-stroke and two-stroke design sectors, Sulzer's links with the diesel engine date back to 1879 when Rudolf Diesel, as a young engineer, followed up his studies by working as an unpaid workshop trainee at Sulzer Brothers in Winterthur, Switzerland. The first Sulzer-built diesel engine was started in June 1898. In 1905 the company built the first directly reversible two-stroke marine diesel engine and, five years later, introduced a valveless two-stroke engine with an...

Rk215 Engine

The 215 mm bore 275 mm stroke RK215 engine (Figure 24.4) was originally produced in in-line six and V8 versions but V12 and V16-cylinder models later extended the upper power limit to 3160 kW at 720-1000 rev min. RK215 engines have earned references in commercial and naval propulsion and genset applications, Ruston summarizing the benefits of the design to operators as cost effective high power-to-weight ratio reduced space requirements ease of installation fuel efficient and minimized...

W64 engine details

Engine block nodular cast iron is the natural choice for modern engine blocks, Wartsila suggests, because of its strength and stiffness properties and the freedom that casting offers. Optimum use was made of current foundry technology to integrate most oil and water channels, resulting in a virtually pipe-free engine with a clean outer exterior. Resilient mounting, now common, calls for a stiff engine frame integrated channels designed with this in mind thus serve a dual purpose. Crankshaft and...

Developing the high performance derivative

Refining an established engine for high speed vessel propulsion duty must focus on achieving a lighter and more powerful package within a more compact envelope, while also enhancing operating flexibility. The resulting PA6B STC design was released with a nominal maximum continuous rating of 405 kW cylinder at 1050 rev min, and a sprint rating of 445 kW cylinder at 1084 rev min (Figure 30.37). Figure 30.36 SEMT-Pielstick PA6B STC cylinder liner Figure 30.36 SEMT-Pielstick PA6B STC cylinder liner...

RK 280 engine details

Crankshaft manufactured from a high tensile NiCrMo continuous grain flow steel forging. Crankcase machined from spheroidal graphite cast iron and featuring underslung main bearings retained by two vertical studs and two cross bolts per side for overall stiffness. The main bearing caps are secured by hydraulically-tensioned studs to ensure maximum integrity of the crankcase system. A 52-degree V-angle minimizes torsional effects and allows location of the intercooler between the cylinder banks,...

Marine Trent

A simple-cycle marine gas turbine with a thermal efficiency exceeding 40 per cent, the Rolls-Royce Marine Trent 30 was scheduled for commercial availability from early 2004 offering outputs up to 36 000 kW from a package weight of 25 tonnes. The MT30 is the eleventh engine type derived from the British designer's core aero technology. The aero Trent 800 was selected from a diverse Rolls-Royce engine family as the parent for this new generation of marine gas turbine because it best matched...

06 04 02

Figure 22.26 Operating data from the 12V48 60B test engine to 11.9 kg kW). The V12-cylinder 48 60B model, for example, develops 14 400 kW and weighs 181 tons, while its predecessor yields 12 600 kW from a weight of 193 tons. For the V18-cylinder engines, the reduction in weight is approximately 15 tons and the extra power around 2700 kW. The dimensions were also reduced the height remains the same but the B-engine is 800 mm (15 per cent) narrower, thanks to a new exhaust system concept. A pair...

Marine Gas Turbine Designs

Turbine Gaz 000

Most marine gas turbines are derived from aircraft jet engines, whose development from scratch can cost over US 1 billion. Such an investment cannot be justified for the maritime industry but the extensive testing and service experience accumulated by aero engines provides an ideal basis for marine derivatives. Marine gas turbines are available only in specific sizes and ratings, unlike a given diesel engine design which can cover a wide power range with different inline and V-cylinder...

Hp Lp

Figure 31.12 Flow diagram of Alstom Power GT35 gas turbine in a marine propulsion installation Refining the GT35 for marine applications called for the following measures modifying the lube oil system to allow for vessel movements modifying the support arrangement to protect the turbine from hull deflections and modifying the power turbine by introducing a second combined journal and thrust bearing, as well as a modified active tip clearance control mechanism achieving a self-supported power...

Selective Catalytic Reduction

Primary methods are generally adequate for the IMO NOx emission limits but tougher regional controls may dictate the use of secondary methods exhaust gas treatment techniques either alone or in Conventional fuel valve Mini-sac valve Slide-type fuel valve Sac volume 1690 mm3 Sac volume 520 mm3 Sac volume 0 mm3 Figure 3.9 Evolution of fuel injection valve design for MAN B amp W Diesel MC two-stroke engines smoke and NOx emissions were lowered by reducing or eliminating the sac volume Conventional...

RTA84C engine data

Stroke bore ratio Power, mcr Cylinders Speed range Mean effective pressure Mean piston speed Maximum cylinder pressure Specific fuel consumption Increasing sizes of post-Panamax containerships dictated more powerful engines and stimulated the introduction of the RTA96C series in December 1994. The 960 mm bore design was fully based on the RTA84C Figures 12.24 and 12.25 , which it supplemented in the programme. The selection of a stroke 2500 mm some 100 mm longer than that of the RTA84C engine...

M32 Engine

The M32 engine Figure 21.2 superseded the well-established M453C series, a 320 mm bore 420 mm stroke design which had been offered as an in-line engine with six, eight and nine cylinders or as V12 and V16 versions with an output per cylinder of 370 kW. A substantial increase in power was yielded by the 320 mm bore M32 design whose modular construction also achieved an engine with 40 per cent fewer parts than its predecessor. The in-line six-, eight- and nine-cylinder M32 models have a 480 mm...

Series 1163

Engine V20

The highest power outputs from the MTU programme were offered for many years by the Series 1163 engines Figure 30.16 . The 230 mm bore 280 mm stroke design is produced in V60-degree configuration 12-, 16- and 20-cylinder versions delivering up to 7400 kW at 1300 rev min for commercial and naval propulsion installations. The key elements of the design are summarized as Figure 30.16 MTU Series 1163 engine in V20-cylinder form Figure 30.16 MTU Series 1163 engine in V20-cylinder form Crankcase...

Twostroke Medium Speed Engines

Emd 645 Exhaust

The medium speed engine market has long been dominated by four-stroke, uniflow-scavenged designs but at one time a number of two-stroke designs enjoyed popularity, notably the Polar loop-scavenged type which ceased production when Nohab introduced its four-stroke F20 range, and Sulzer's uniflow-scavenged ZH40. WICHMANN's commitment to the two-stroke loop-scavenged trunk piston concept was renewed in 1984 with the launch of its 295 kW cylinder WX28 engine Figure 28.25 . The simple 'valveless'...

W38B version

The popularity of the Wartsila 38 encouraged the development of a B-version offering higher powers with lower fuel consumption and reduced emissions. The new model also benefited from an advanced control and monitoring system, and full modularization to ease assembly. The B-series was fully released in 2001 with in-line six, eight and nine and V12, 16 and 18-cylinder models covering a power band from 4350 kW to 13 050 kW at 600 rev min. The original engine, re-designated the Wartsila 38A,...

Low NOx Vasa

The Vasa 32 engine in 1994 became the first in the Wartsila Diesel programme to be released with low NOx combustion technology, a key measure calling for the compression ratio to be increased from 12 to 14 1 to secure a sufficiently high compression temperature. The smaller combustion space dictated reshaping of the piston crown and the cylinder cover flame plate to allow for the fuel jets and good air fuel mixing. A new piston was developed for the higher maximum firing pressure raised by 10...

Doxford Jtype

Doxford Type Opposed Piston

Doxford J-type engines were built in long and short stroke versions in bore sizes of 580, 670 and 760 mm, and with three to nine cylinders delivering up to around 20 000 kW Table 14.1 . The engine is a single-acting two-stroke opposed-piston type with each cylinder having two pistons which move in opposite directions from a central combustion chamber. The pistons in each cylinder are connected to a three-throw section of the crankshaft, the lower piston being coupled to the centre throw by a...

Rl Type Engines

The RTA engine's immediate predecessor in the Sulzer low speed programme was the loop-scavenged RL series, of which examples remain in service and merit attention here. The RLA56, a small bore two-stroke engine introduced in 1977, incorporated the basic design concept of the successful RND and RNDM series but extended the power range at the lower end. This engine, of comparatively long stroke design, was the first model in the RLA series. It retained many of the design features of the then most...

Medium speed enginesintroduction

Carbon Cutting Ring Cylinder Liner

New designs and upgraded versions of established models have maintained the dominance of medium speed four-stroke diesel engines in the propulsion of smaller ships as well as larger specialist tonnage such as cruise vessels, car passenger ferries and ro-ro freight carriers. The larger bore designs can also target the mainstream cargo ship propulsion market formed by bulk carriers, containerships and tankers, competing against low speed two-stroke machinery. The growth of the fast ferry sector...

Isotta Fraschini

A family of high speed engines from Isotta Fraschini, part of Italy's Fincantieri group, is headed by the 170 mm bore 170 mm stroke 1700 series which is available in different versions for light, medium and heavy propulsion duties in commercial and military vessels, as well as for genset drives. A non-magnetic variant was developed for mine warfare vessels. The 1700 series embraces V8, 12 and 16-cylinder models, all with a 90-degree configuration arranged on a high tensile alloy iron crankcase...

Gmt

Grandi Motori Trieste Label Diagram

A wide range of medium speed engines was designed and produced over many years by Grandi Motori Trieste GMT , which was founded in the late 1960s to pool the diesel engine expertise and resources of Fiat, Ansaldo and CRDA, and rationalize the Italian enginebuilding industry. GMT later became part of the state-owned Fincantieri shipbuilding group's diesel engine division and in 1997 entered a new era as a member of the Wartsila Corporation see Chapter 27 , after which its own-design portfolio...

Rtflex Electronic Engines

Flex Sulzer

The Sulzer RT-flex system, which will be progressively offered as an option for all models in the RTA programme, resulted from a project originated in the 1980s to develop an electronically-controlled low speed engine without the constraints imposed by mechanical drive of the fuel injection pumps and exhaust valve actuation pumps see the introductory chapter on Low Speed Engines. Traditional jerk-type fuel injection systems combine pressure generation, timing and metering in the injection pump...

Puncture Valve Fuelpump

Figure 10.26 Fuel valve with variable opening pressure the same excellent wear properties as those of Stellite but additionally offering an ability to withstand hot corrosion neck burning. A truly heavy duty fuel valve nozzle is thus available when required. MAN B amp W has addressed the potential for enhancing the reliability of combustion chamber components under increasing mean effective pressure conditions by rearranging the fuel valves in the cylinder cover. Originally, the 90-type large...

W26X version

A high performance variant, the Wartsila 26X engine, was developed for fast commercial and naval propulsion applications with respective outputs of 4800 kW, 6400 kW and 7200 kW at 1000 rev min from V12, 16 and 18-cylinder models on a mean effective pressure of 28.2 bar. Key components of the standard engine notably the crankshaft, cylinder heads and liners were redesigned and reinforced to suit the load profile imposed by fast ferry operation. Weight reductions in structural elements were also...

Charge air humidification

Another way of introducing water into the combustion zone is by humidifying the scavenge air warm water is injected and evaporated in the air intake, whose absolute humidity is thereby increased. An early drawback was that too much water in the air can be harmful to the cylinder condition but the introduction of the anti-polishing ring in the liner see the chapter Medium Speed Engines Introduction has allowed a much higher humidity to be accepted. In the Combustion Air Saturation System CASS ,...

Intelligent engines

Both MAN B amp W Diesel and New Sulzer Diesel demonstrated 'camshaftless' operation with their research engines, applying electronically controlled fuel injection and exhaust valve actuation systems. Continuing R amp D will pave the way for a future generation of highly reliable 'intelligent engines' those which monitor their own condition and adjust parameters for optimum performance in all operating regimes, including fuel-optimized and emissions-optimized modes. An 'intelligent...

Turbo Compound Systems

The high efficiency of some modern large turbochargers is comfortably in excess of that required to pressure charge engines, allowing some of the exhaust gas to be diverted to drive a power turbine. A number of these turbo compound installations are in service, mainly in conjunction with MAN B amp W and Sulzer low speed engines, the investment particularly worthwhile in an era of high fuel prices. The power gas turbine is arranged either to supplement directly the propulsive effort of the...

159165

An extension of the same 'total economy' LSE concept later resulted in a 600 mm bore version. The current UEC programme embraces models with bore sizes of 330 mm, 370 mm, 430 mm, 450 mm, 500 mm, 520 mm, 600 mm, 750 mm and 850 mm in LA, LS, LSII and LSE versions, covering an output band from 1120 to 46 800 kW at 215 to 54 rev min Figures 11.4 and 11.5 . Typical performance curves and layout diagrams are shown in Figures 11.6 and 11.7. Development progress since 1955 is underlined by the LS-type...

MTU Series 8000 engine CR system

MTU subsequently applied an electronic common rail system to the group's largest-ever high speed engine, the 265 mm bore Series 8000, introduced in 2000 see Chapter 30 , whose V20-cylinder version develops up to 9000 kW at 1150 rev min. As on the Series 4000 engine, the system enables infinite variation of injection timing, volume and pressure over the entire engine performance curve. The supply of pressurized fuel to the injectors, however, is achieved by different means. On the Series 4000...

Wartsila 50df Engine Details

Diesel Oil System

Based on the well proven Wartsila 46 diesel engine, but with special systems for dual-fuel operation, the 50DF is produced in six-cylinder in-line to V18-cylinder configurations yielding 950 kW per cylinder at a speed of 500 or 514 rev min. A thermal efficiency of 47 per cent higher than any other gas engine is claimed, and the engine delivers the same output whether running on natural gas, light fuel oil or heavy fuel oil. The air-fuel ratio is very high, typically 2.2 1. Since the same...

Piston and connecting rod

Spacer for channelling coolant to the upper section of the liner and to the coolant pipes . Each power unit is attached to the crankcase by four hydraulically-tightened stud bolts which have to withstand the high ignition pressures but do not perform a sealing function. A good seal is effected by securing the cylinder liner directly to the cylinder head from below with 24 bolts. By separating the functions of sealing and retention, MTU explains, wider design scope was created for optimizing...