7242 Preliminary Feasibility Study Approaches

AGA Manual GKCO Consultants (1982) developed a cogeneration feasibility (technical and economical) evaluation manual for the American Gas Association, AGA. It contains a Cogeneration Conceptual Design Guide that provides guidelines for the development of plant designs. It specifies the following steps to conduct the site feasibility study a) Select the type of prime mover or cycle (piston engine, gas turbine or steam turbine) b) Determine the total installed capacity c) Determine the size and...

Base BLC

The units of the BLC will be terms of the fuel units per degree day. The BLC will be most valuable for additional analysis if it is converted to units of Btu (hr- F) or Watts C. The following example demonstrates how the above might be used to evaluate the potential for envelope improvement in a building. A proposal has been made to replace 5,000 ft2 of windows in an electrically heated building. The building envelope has been analyzed on a component-by-component basis and found to have an...

12b100 Energy Management Functions

12.B10.1 Scheduling The software shall provide for up to 5 (user configurable) multiple start and stop schedule(s) for each piece of machinery, for each day of the week. In addition, it shall provide for twenty-six (26) special holiday schedules which can be configured a year in advance. The operator shall have the ability to designate each holiday as either a single date or a range of dates. In addition, each of these 26 holidays shall be configurable as either a complete shutdown day where...

2262Conventional Devices and Wiring

Conventional wiring architecture consists of devices in the field each wired back to the input or output terminals of the controller, with a dedicated set of wires (often a pair of wires). Thus, for 100 instruments there would be 100 sets of wires finding their way home to the controller. This type of wiring is very straight forward and is referred to as home run wiring. At the control panel the number of wires is the greatest and the system of wires fans out and disperses, the further it gets...

211 Preface

This is the second full revision for this chapter, Natural Gas Purchasing. Chapter 21 was originally written when the book was published in 1993. Rewrite for the first revision was a completely new effort done in 1996. As of 2000, the industry has continued to change and is still in the conversion from a federally regulated, price-controlled business to an economically dynamic, open industry, and this is a completely revised writing. Changes are continuing to shape the industry differently,...

600

A majority of the technology developed for energy management has dealt with the more efficient consumption of electricity, rather than timing the demand for it. Variable frequency drives, energy efficient lights, electronic ballasts and energy efficient motors are a few of these consumption management devices. These techniques often only impact a small portion of the facilities demand (when compared to say the mechanical cooling equipment), which is normally a major portion of the facilities...

717

NOTES 40W lamps are rated at 3200 lumens per lamp. 34W lamps are rated at 2800 lumens per lamp. 42W lamps are rated at 3700 lumens per lamp. 32W lamps are rated at 2900 lumens per lamp. New luminaires may have greater efficiencies, due to highly reflective paints. U.S. EPA Green Lights Program, Lighting Upgrade Manual, Apr. 94. Advance Transformer Specification Guide Magnetek Specification Guide_

29 Reporting

There is no generic form to that can be used for reporting. There are too many variables such as organization size, product, project requirements, and procedures already in existence. The ultimate reporting system is one used by a chemical company making a textile product. The Btu lb of product is calculated on a computer system that gives an instantaneous reading. This is not only a reporting system, but one that detects maintenance problems. Very few companies are set up to do this, but many...

F

Facility appraisal 326 facility layout 28 facility specific instructions 331 failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) 624 failure mode effect and criticality analysis (FMECA) 624 fan-coils 256 fan law 290 fans 716 faradaic or current efficiency 494 fault hazard analysis (FHA) 624 fault tree 627, 630 analysis 627 FCU 349 Federal Energy Administration 467 Federal Energy Management Implementation Act (FEMIA) 542 Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) 2 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)...

134

3 of the original steam energy (0.12 x 0.25) goes up the vent pipe. The table shows that this loss could be reduced by half by operating the flash tank at a pressure of 30 psig, providing a low-temperature steam source for potential use in other parts of the process. Flash steam recovery is discussed later in more detail. Even when condensate is fully recovered using one of the methods to be described below, heat losses can still occur from uninsulated or poorly insulated return lines. These...

7027336500

ISTA Energy Systems Corp., 407 Hope Ave., P.O. Box 618, Roselle, NJ 07203 908-241-8880 Johnson Controls, Inc., 507 E. Michigan Street, P.O. Box 423, Milwaukee, WI 53201 414-274-4128 Kreuter, Mfg., 5000 Peachtree Ind. Blvd., 125, Norcross, GA 30071 404-662-5720 Landis & Gyr Powers, 1000 Deerfield Parkway, Buffalo Grove, IL 60089 708-215-1000 Logic Power, 13500 Wright Circle, Tampa, FL 33626 813-854-1588 Microcontrol Systems, Inc., 6579 N. Sidney Pl., Milwaukee, WI 53209 414-262-3143 North...

138 Common Retrofits

Although there are numerous potential combinations of lamps, ballasts and lighting systems, a few retrofits are very common. In office applications, popular and profitable retrofits involve installing electronic ballasts and energy efficient lamps, and in some cases, reflectors. Table 13.20 shows how a typical system changes with the addition of reflectors and the removal or substitution of lamps and ballasts. Notice that thin lamps allow more light to exit the fixture, thereby increasing...

74 Us Cogeneration Legislation Purpa

Congress amended the Federal Power Act by promulgation of the Public Utilities Regulatory Act (PURPA). The Act recognized the energy saving potential of industrial cogeneration and small power plants, the need for real and significant incentives for development of these facilities and the private sector requirement to remain unregulated. PURPA of 1978 eliminated several obstacles to cogeneration so cogenerators can count on fair treatment by the local electric utility with...

824Constructing the Heat Balance Diagram

The first law of thermodynamics as applied to a steady flow-steady state system is conveniently written Q net rate of heat loss or gain, Btu hr pi density of ith inflow or outflow, lb ft3 Qi volumetric flow rate of ith inflow or outflow, scfh hi specific enthalpy of ith inflow or outflow, Btu lbm h'i specific enthalpy of z'th inflow or outflow, Btu scf W net rate of mechanical or electric work being transferred to or from the system, Btu hr n total number of inlet or outlet paths penetrating...

Method 1 Pulley Ratio Method

Step 1 determine the ratio of the existing motor pulley and fan pulley by dividing the driven (fan) pulley diameter by the motor pulley diameter. (Driven (Fan) Pulley Diameter) (Motor Pulley Diameter) (Working Ratio) Step 2 multiply the listed sheaves diameter of the appropriate model payback drive by the derived working ratio to determine the ideal new driven (fan) sheaves diameter. (Payback Listed Sheaves Dia.) x (Working Ratio) (Calculated Fan Sheave Diameter.) Step 3 select the nearest size...

731 Celcap

Lee (1988) reports that the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory developed a cogeneration analysis computer program known as Civil Engineering Laboratory Cogeneration Program (CELCAP), for the purpose of evaluating the performance of cogeneration systems on a lifecycle operating cost basis. He states that selection of a cogeneration energy system for a specific application is a complex task. He points out that the first step in the selection of cogeneration system is to make a list of potential...

Step 2 Engineering and Construction Planning

Once an alternative has been selected and approved by the owner, preliminary engineering is started to develop the general design criteria. These include specific site information such as process heat and power requirements, fuel availability and pricing, system type definition, modes of operation, system interface, review of alternatives under more detailed load and equipment data, confirm selected alternative and finally size the plant equipment and systems to match the application. Step 3....

Avoided Costs

The costs avoided by a utility when a cogeneration plant displaces generation capacity and or fuel usage are the basis to set the rates paid by utilities for co-generated power sold back to the utility grid. in some circumstances, the actual rates may be higher or lower than the avoided costs, depending on the need of the utility for additional power and on the outcomes of the negotiations between the parties involved in the cogen-eration development process. All utilities are now required by...

16354 19109

1692.0 1746.8 2.0446 2.0750 979.72 1079.72 11.625 12.290 1691.8 1746.7 2.0316 2.0619 975.87 1075.87 11.012 11.643 1691.7 1746.6 2.0256 2.0559 972.18 1072.18 10.460 11.060 1691.6 1746.5 2.0199 2.0502 1691.4 1746.3 2.0044 2.0347 958.73 1058.73 8.7130 9.2134 1691.3 1746.2 1.99 2.0300 952.67 1052.67 8.0411 8.5033 1691.1 1746.1 1.9907 2.0211 946. 1046.96 7.4652 7.8946 1690.9 1745.9 1.9825 2.0129 941.57 1041.57 6.9661 7.3671 1690.7 1745.7 1.9748 2.0052 1690.5 1745.6 1.9676 1.9980 931.58 1031.58...

152

Table 9.5 combines test results with calculations to estimate the benefits that may be realized utilizing thermal girts. 9.3.7.3 Increase Z-Girt-to-Metal Skin Contact Resistance While the Z-Girt itself does not offer much resistance to heat flow, testing has found that up to half of the resistance of the girt-to-metal skin assembly is attributable to poor contact between the girt and the metal skin. Quantitative estimates of the benefit of using less conductive materials to break the interface...

Table 82 Wasteheat sources in the mediumtemperature range

Reciprocating engine exhausts 600-1100 Reciprocating engine exhausts 450-700 (turbocharged) Heat treating furnaces 800-1200 Drying and baking ovens 450-1100 Annealing furnace cooling systems 800-1200 Selective catalytic reduction systems for NOx control 525-750 utilized to preheat combustion air or boiler make-up water, respectively. At the lower end of the range heat pumps may be required to raise the source temperature to one that is above the load temperature. An example of an application...

1432 Lift Trucks Nonelectric

The main points to maintain on a lift truck powered by diesel, gasoline, or LPG are the engine, the hydraulic system, the transmission, and the braking system. Batteries are important, but their care is not as central to the maintenance of these lift trucks as it is to the maintenance of electric-powered trucks. Special attention should be paid to the oil level, the radiator, and fan belts. The oil level should be inspected daily, and the oil and oil filter should be changed every 150 hours...

BLC x DD x 24 H x

Ignoring the conversion terms, we can see that this equation has the potential to describe the relationship between monthly weather trends and the building heating fuel consumption shown in Figure 9.23. As building construction techniques have improved over the years, and more and more heat-producing equipment has found its way into commercial and even residential buildings, a variety of correction factors have been introduced to accommodate these influences. The Degree-Day method, in its...

Info

Temperature set points from 74 cooling 72 heating to 76 cooling and 70 heating. Similar effect as night setback, except use 2 per degree setback for continuous operation instead of 1 for setback. If local adjustment is available to the tenants, some adjacent areas may have sufficiently different local set points to cause simultaneous heating and cooling, reducing measure savings. Limiting the local user adjustment to + - 2 degrees F from nominal set point will help ensure these savings are...

160

If the fouling is on the water side because of scale buildup, accumulation of mud or slime, or for some other reason, heat transfer will be impeded as described above, and increased stack temperature will result. The effect of this scaling is seen in Table 14.13. The detrimental effect can be severe. As with excess oxygen, it is advisable to monitor stack temperature on an hourly basis and to record the readings. By graphing the readings, it is possible to determine how much variation is caused...

923Insulation Penetrations

One of the assumptions necessary to justify the use of the one-dimensional heat transfer technique used in equation 9-1 is that the component must be thermally homogeneous. Heat is transferred from the warm side of the component to the colder side and through each individual layer in a series path, much like current flow through simple electrical circuit with the resistances in series. No lateral or sideways heat transfer is assumed to take place within the layers. For this to be true, the...

E C Bi T B2

C the constant energy use below the change point, B-i the coefficient or slope that describes the linear dependency on temperature, B2 the cooling change point temperature, T the ambient temperature for the period corresponding to the energy use, + positive values only for the parenthetical expression. The four-parameter change-point linear heating model is typically applicable to heating usage in buildings with HVAC systems that have variable-air volume, or whose output varies with the ambient...

1411 Determine the Present Condition of the Facility

The purpose of this step is to create a starting point. The questions to be answered are (1) What equipment and systems are in the building (2) What material is available to describe each system and or its components (3) What needs to be done to get the energy-related systems into working condition and to keep them that way This step should incorporate (1) vendor data and operating specifications for as much of the installed equipment as possible, kept in a notebook, a file cabinet, or a...

P

P-n junction diodes 482 package boilers 416, 418 parabolic 478 partial load storage 526 partial load system 529 partial storage systems 521, 529 par value or face value 668 passive air preheaters 215 passive infrared sensors (PIR) 365, 366 payback period 58, 468 PCB ballasts 383 peer-to-peer network 318 performance contracting 661, 710 performance contractors 2 periodic replacement 42 personnel protection 450 phase 277, 299 phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) 170 horizon 42, 63 plastic foams 442...

N

National Electrical Code 279 National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEM) 273, 285, 379 National Fenestration Rating Council 237 natural convection 256 natural disasters 623 natural gas 550 environmental advantages 565 purchase of 567 consumption 554 interstate pipeline specifications 561 marketers 567 markets 566 pricing 570 purchasing 549 supply 555 transportation 558 Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) 1, 545 of 1978 546 near term results 41 NEBs 322 negative-sequence voltage 274 NERTs 322...

2241Introduction

The following is a very important first statement before any discussion about control hardware The type of hardware used in optimization is less important than the understanding of the process and of the control concepts that are to be implemented. 1 pp 42l The main goal should be to become clear about the process fundamentals and what should happen then the parts and pieces are just details. This discussion of different available hardware types is a familiar but sometimes laborious and dull...

Sulfur Content

The sulfur content of an oil is dependent upon the source of crude oil. Typically, 70 to 80 of the sulfur in a crude oil is concentrated in the fuel product, unless expensive desulfurization equipment is added to the refining process. Fuel oils normally have sulfur contents of from 0.3 to 3.0 with distillates at the lower end of the range unless processed from a very high sulfur crude. Often, desulfurized light distillates are blended with high-sulfur residual oil to reduce the residual's...

1464 Monitoring

When the energy consumption base has been established and the energy management plan has begun to take effect, energy consumption must be monitored. Monitoring serves three functions to evaluate progress, to show which measures work, and to show which measures do not work. The first step in a monitoring program is to choose some measure of energy consumption to monitor. Each kind of energy used in the facility should be monitored, with separate graphs for gasoline, propane, gas, and electric...

286 Technology Performance

In 1999, an estimated 400,000 ground-source heat pumps were operating in residential and commercial applications, up from 100,000 in 1990. With a projected annual growth rate of 10 , 120,000 new units would be installed in 2010, for a total of 1.5 million units in 2010 (Lund and Boyd 2000). The majority of new ground-source heat pump installations in the United States are for residential applications in the southern and mid-western states. Environmental concerns and a general lack of...

Hgb

Figure 25.12 Resource Flow Diagram for a Capital Lease. A synthetic lease is a hybrid lease that combines aspects of a true lease and a capital lease. Through careful structuring and planning, the synthetic lease appears as an operating lease for accounting purposes (enables the Host to have off-balance sheet financing), yet also appears as a capital lease for tax purposes (to obtain depreciation for tax benefits). Consult your local financing expert to learn more about synthetic leases they...

542 Fuel Oil Classifications

Influential in the storage, handling, and combustion efficiency of a liquid fuel are its physical and chemical characteristics. Fuel oils are graded as No. 1, No. 2, No. 4, No. 5 (light), No. 5 (heavy), and No. 6. Distillates are Nos. 1 and 2 and residual oils are Nos. 4, 5, and 6. Oils are classified according to physical characteristics by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) according to Standard D-396. No. 1 oil is used as domestic heating oil and as a light grade of diesel...

1552 Energy Savings Calculations

The following procedure shows how to estimate the energy cost savings resulting from installing thermal insulation. STEP 1. Calculate present heat losses (Qjpres). You can use one of the following methods to calculate the heat losses of the present system Heat flow equations. These equations are in Section 15.4.2. Graphical method. Consists of Steps 1, 2 and 2a of the graphical method presented in Section 15.4.3. Table values. Table 15.8 presents heat losses values for bare surfaces (dull...

4

Check fan blades and clean if necessary Check fan belts for proper tension and wear Check pulleys for wear and alignment Check for drive noise, loose belts, and excessive vibration Faucets 1. Check for leaks replace washers if needed Filters, air 2. Check for gaps around filters 3. Inspect electrical power equipment (for roll filters from Ref. 6) 2. Remove obstructions from in front of grill 1. Check for refrigerant leaks Lights, inside 2. Perform survey of lighting in actual use 4. Replace...

16351

Caused cold air to flow through the boxes even when they were in the heating mode, resulting in simultaneous heating and cooling. Furthermore some of the reheat valves were malfunctioning. This caused the reheat to remain on continuously in some cases. Additional problems identified from the field survey included the following 1) high air resistance from the filters and coils, 2) errors in a temperature sensor and static pressure sensor, 3) high static pressure setpoints in AHU1 and AHU2. This...

Series versus Parallel Flow

Closed-loop ground-coupled heat exchangers may be designed in series, parallel, or a combination of both. In series systems, the heat transfer fluid can take only one path through the loop, whereas in parallel systems the fluid can take two or more paths through the circuit. The selection will affect performance, pumping requirements, and cost. Small-scale ground-coupling systems can use either series or parallel-flow design, but most large ground-coupling systems use parallel-flow systems. The...

12b60 Outputs

12.B6.1 The system shall be capable of outputting the following system signals a. Digital Outputs (DO) The DO output function shall provide dry contact closures for momentary and maintained programmable operation of field devices. Any manual overrides shall be reported to the system at each update. b. Analog Output (AO) The AO output function may be a true analog output providing a 0-l0VDC and or 0-20ma DC signal or, accept digital data, perform digital to analog (D A) conversion and output a...

195 Economic Summary

Table 19.9 covered the approximate costs of each of the three system configurations utilizing each of the three different storage mediums. Table 19.8 listed the various peak day performance parameters of each of the systems presented. To this point, the peak day chiller consumption has been used to size the system. To analyze the savings potential of the thermal storage systems, much more information is needed to determine daily cooling and chiller loads and the respective storage system...

541 Natural

Natural-gas firing in combustors has traditionally been the most attractive fuel type, because 1. Gas costs were low until about 2000 when they started to rise dramatically. 2. Only limited fuel-handling equipment typically consisting of pipelines, metering, a liquid knockout drum, and appropriate controls is required. 3. Boiler costs are minimized due to smaller boiler sizes which result from highly radiant flame charac- teristics and higher velocities, resulting in enhanced heat transfer and...

097123 098331

Source Abridged from Table 1 in Joseph H. Keenan and Joseph Kaye, Gas Tables, John Wiley & Sons. Inc., New York copyright 1948. Source Abridged from Table 1 in Joseph H. Keenan and Joseph Kaye, Gas Tables, John Wiley & Sons. Inc., New York copyright 1948. II.2-13. Generalized Enthalpy Correction Chart 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 10 20 30 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 10 20 30 Table II.2-14 Generalized Entropy Correction Chart Table II.2-14 Generalized Entropy...

Condensate Recovery Systems

As mentioned earlier, condensate recovery systems require careful engineering to assure that they are compatible with overall plant operations, that they are safe and reliable, and that they can actually achieve their energy-efficiency potential. In this section a few of the overall planning factors that should be considered are enumerated and discussed. 1. Availability of Adequate Condensate Sources. An energy audit should be performed to collect detailed information on the quantity of...

1116 Sensitivity Of Load To Motor

When employing electric motors, for air moving equipment, it is important to remember that the performance of fans and blowers is governed by certain rules of physics. These rules are known as The Affinity Laws or The Fan Laws. There are several parts to it, and are all related to each other in a known manner and when one changes, all others change. For centrifugal loads, even a minor change in the motor's speed translates into significant change in energy consumption and is especially...

The Electric Power Industry

At the turn of the century, vertically integrated electric utilities produced approximately two-fifths of the nation's electricity. At the time, many businesses (nonutilities) generated their own electricity. When utilities began to install larger and more efficient generators and more transmission lines, the associated increase in convenience and economical service prompted many industrial consumers to shift to the utilities for their electricity needs. With the invention of the electric motor...

047826

Source Abstracted from National Bureau of Standards Technical Note 129A, The Thermodynamic Properties of Nitrogen from 114 to 540 R between 1.0 and 3000 psia, Supplement A (British Units), by Thomas R. Strobridge. Source Abstracted from National Bureau of Standards Technical Note 129A, The Thermodynamic Properties of Nitrogen from 114 to 540 R between 1.0 and 3000 psia, Supplement A (British Units), by Thomas R. Strobridge. Table H.2-9 Thermodynamic Properties of Superheated Nitrogen Table...

Glossary

There are a few terms that the user of this document needs to be familiar with. Below is a listing of common terms and their definitions. Billing Demand The billing demand is the demand that is billed to the customer. The electric billing demand is generally the maximum demand or maximum average measured demand in any 15-, 30-, or 60-minute period in the billing month. The gas billing demand is determined over an hour or a day and is usually the greatest total use in the stated time period....

Insulation

Survey surface temperatures using infrared thermometry or thermography on insulated equipment and piping to locate areas of insulation deterioration. Maintain insulation on a regular basis. 2. Evaluate insulation of all uninsulated lines and fittings previously thought to be uneconomic. Recent rises in energy costs have made insulation of valves, flanges, and small lines desirable in many cases where this was previously unattractive. 3. Survey the economics of retrofitting additional insulation...

Ash

During combustion, impurities in oil produce a metallic oxide ash in the furnace. Over 25 different metals can be found in oil ash, the predominant being nickel, iron, calcium, sodium, aluminum, and vanadium. These impurities are concentrated from the source crude oil during refining and are difficult to remove since they are chemically bound in the oil. Ash contents vary widely distillates have about 0 to 0.1 ash and heavier oil 0.2 to 1.5 . Although percentages are small, continuous boiler...

005

What is the temperature inside the line Coming down column (1) we find a pressure of 150, and moving over to column (3), we note that the corresponding steam temperature at this pressure is about 366 F. Column (4) lists the enthalpy of the saturated liquid in Btu lb of water. We can see at the head of the column that this enthalpy is designated as 0 at a temperature column (3) of 32 F. monly around 75 to 80 ) there is a built-in amplifier on any energy savings effected in the steam system.

12a30 System Sequence Logic

12.A3.1 SYSTEM MODE Install capability for the user to easily and conveniently set and vary annual beginning and ending dates for the heating season to prevent simultaneous heating and cooling. Heating equipment operation will be determined by the time of year (i.e. space heating boilers and circulators will only operate during the heating season And be locked out during the rest of the year regardless of outside air temperature). Install October 15th to May 15th as initial parameters for the...

1355 Induction Lighting

Since the introduction of the first electric light, a search has been on for long-life lighting. The reason for this search is to reduce the cost associated with changing lighting components at or near their end of rated life maintenance cost. The lamps used in induction systems have no electrodes to wear out as other lamps, such as fluorescent and HID lamps do. The lamps can last much longer without electrodes. Long life is the primary advantage of these systems. These systems can provide a...

23

1Measured with a Demand Meter 2Approximated using Figure 4 1Measured with a Demand Meter 2Approximated using Figure 4 and the other four are operated according to the plant's varying demand for cooling. The chillers are currently controlled by variable inlet vanes (VIV). The typical load diversity and the power input required for one of the chillers under varying load were obtained from the manufacturer. In addition, the data in Table 2 give the power input of a proposed variable frequency...

1222 The EMCS Retrofit

Without the benefit of a DDC EMCS the operator of the example building must incur after-normal hours operating costs and allocate them over the entire leasing cost. This unfairly spreads the costs generated by a few tenants over the lease costs of all tenants. The overall effect are higher leasing charges for all. The most cost effective way to retrofit a DDC EMCS in a building controlled by a reasonably maintained pneumatic control system is to interface it with the existing pneumatics in a...

2133 Economics

Natural gas prices were originally set by the federal regulatory agency having jurisdiction over natural gas. The original methodology for price setting was much like the rate of return methodology for pipeline transportation tariffs. This was a direct function of the believed costs of finding, developing and producing natural gas. As discussed previously, the low prices paid at the wellhead prevented the natural gas industry from maintaining the necessary supply and caused the dire gas...

DDC Information Technology IT System

Maintenance Systems that share communication infrastructure with other, more sensitive, systems require careful attention to information configuration and maintenance. The ideal approach is to have computer Information Technology (IT) capabilities on staff devoting their time to control system integration activities as an in-house expense however this may be cost prohibitive for all but the largest systems. The more common 'drop-in' approach is to select an industry partner to provide this...

281 Abstract

Ground-source heat pumps can provide an energy-efficient, cost-effective way to heat and cool commercial facilities. While ground-source heat pumps are well established in the residential sector, their application in larger, commercial-style, facilities is lagging, in part because of limited experience with the technology by those in decision-making positions. Through the use of a ground-coupling system, a conventional water-source heat pump design is transformed to a unique means of utilizing...

035

Given the availability of the above information, the procedure to determine the ATCF on a year-by-year basis proceeds using the following calculation for each year Taxable Income BTCF - Loan Interest - Bond Interest - Deprecation Taxes Taxable Income * Tax Rate ATCF BTCF - Total Loan Payments - Total Bond Payments - Taxes An important observation is that Depreciation reduces Taxable Income (hence, taxes) but does not directly enter into the calculation of ATCF since it is not a true cash flow....

Power Survey

Power surveys are conducted to compile meaningful records of energy usage at the service entrance, feeders and individuals loads. These records can be analyzed to prioritize those areas yielding the greatest energy savings. Power surveys also provide information for load scheduling to reduce peak demand and show operational characteristics of loads that may suggest component or system replacement to reduce energy consumption. Only through the measurement of AC power parameters can true cost...

71

+This extended life is available from a specific lamp-ballast combination. Normal T10 lamp lives are approximately 24,000 hours. Service life refers to the typical lamp replacement life. +This extended life is available from a specific lamp-ballast combination. Normal T10 lamp lives are approximately 24,000 hours. Service life refers to the typical lamp replacement life. lamps in nearly all applications. Mercury Vapor lamps provide a white-colored light which turns slightly green over time. A...

1r s riln rj 1rj X h 0r 0 j kj hi

This expression results from the application of the conduction equation across the wall components and the convection equation at the wall boundaries. Then, by noting that in steady state each expression for heat must be equal, we can write the expression for U, which contains both convection and conduction effects. The U factor is extremely useful to engineers and architects in a wide variety of applications. However, there is no difference in heat-transfer rate that is, Qo UiAiToverall...

76 Closure

Cogeneration has been used for almost a century to supply both process heat and power in many large industrial plants in the United States. This technology would have been applied to a greater extent if we did not experience a period of plentiful low-cost fuel and reliable low-cost electric power in the 25 years following the end of World War 11. Thus economic rather than technical considerations have limited the application of The continued increase in the cost of energy is the primary factor...

39 Conclusion

Energy audits are an important first step in the overall process of reducing energy costs for any building, company, or industry. A thorough audit identifies and analyzes the changes in equipment and operations that will result in cost-effective energy cost reduction. The energy auditor plays a key role in the successful conduct of an audit, and also in the implementation of the audit recommendations. Instructions For Energy Auditors, Volumes I and II, U.S. Department of Energy, DOE CS-0041...

Table 615 Typical Pipe Surface Temperatures for Various Operating Pressures

Operating Pressure Temperatures (psig) ( F) of such systems. Condensate return systems can, in fact, be quite complex, and proper design usually requires a careful engineering analysis. The energy manager can, however, define the type of system best suited to the requirements and determine whether sufficient justification exists for a comprehensive design study.

Pumps

Measure i) volumetric flow rate, ii) coincident RMS power, iii) differential pressure, iv) and rotational speed while the pump is at typical operating conditions. Applications Constant volume constant speed pumping systems. Used to confirm design operating conditions and pump and system curves. Operate pump at typical existing operating conditions for the system. Measure pump suction and discharge pressure, or differential pressure. Measure motor RMS power input. Calculate pump and energy...

962Gas Space Between Panes

Most multiple-paned windows are filled with dry air. The thermal performance can be improved by the substitution of gases with lower thermal conductivities. Other gases and gas mixtures used besides dry air are Argon, Krypton, Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfur Hexafluo-ride. The use of Argon instead of dry air can improve the center-of-glass U-factor by 6-9 , depending on the dis- tance between panes, and CO2 filled units achieve similar performance to Argon gas. For spaces up to 0.5 inches, the...

CRC Press

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Energy management handbook by Wayne C. Turner & Steve Doty. -- 6th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-88173-542-6 (print) 0-88173-543-4 (electronic) 1. Power resources Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Energy conservation-Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Doty, Steve. II. Title.

937Strategies for Reducing Heat Loss in Metal Building Walls

9.3.7.1 Maintain Maximum Spacing Between Z-Girts Tests on a 10-inch wall8 with a theoretical R-value of 36 hr-ft2- F Btu demonstrated a measured R-value of 10.2 hr-ft2- F Btu with the girts spaced 2 feet apart. Increasing the spacing to 8 feet between the girts had a corresponding effect of increasing the R-value to 16.5 hr-ft2- F Btu. While typical girt spacing in the wall of a metal building is 6 feet on-center, this study does emphasize the desirability of maximizing the girt spacing...

05

*For simplicity the assumption is made that this natural gas is pure methane. This assumption is often valid for high-Btu fuel gas. For more precision and with other fuel gases, the exact composition should be determined and used in the combustion equation. Combustion air-100 F 5,250,000 cfh -94,400,000 Btu hr Surface heat loss Combustion air 100 F 9,500,000 cfh Figure 8.9 Heat-balance diagram for reheat furnace(a) Natural gas.(b) No.2 fuel oil. A volume of air 22.65 + 85.4 ft3air

N2

Hcomb. air f x fuel firing rate x h'aiI h'air at 100 F is found to be 1.2 Btu ft3. Hcomb.air 13.0 x 403.8 103 x 1.2 6.3 x 106Btu hr The specific enthalpy of each of the flue-gas components at 2200 F is found from Figure 8.10 to be + x 44.1 + j54 x 43.4 + 2 x 54. Btu hr Because each fuel has its own chemical composition, the stack-gas composition will be different for each fuel, as will the enthalpy flux thus the calculation should be repeated for each fuel. Flow path 1 represents the flow of...

1TlTH

Since the work requirement must be met by a prime mover that is either an electric motor or a liquid-fueled engine, the COP must be considerably greater than 3.0 in order to be an economically attractive energy source. That is true because the efficiency of the prime movers used to drive the heat pump, or to generate the electrical energy for the motor drive, have efficiencies less than 33 . The maximum theoretical COP for an i deal heat pump is given by where TL temperature of energy source...

968 Doors

In general, door U-factors can be determined in a similar manner to the walls, roofs and exposed floor demonstrated above. Softwoods have R-values around 1.0 to 1.3 per inch, while hardwoods have R-values that range from 0.80 to 0.95 per inch. A 1-3 8-inch panel door has a U-factor of approximately 0.57 Btu (Hr-ft2- F), while a 1-3 4 solid core flush door has a U-factor of approximately 0.40. As has been shown to be the case with some walls and windows, metal doors are a different story. The...

Natural Convection

The simplest all-water system is a system of hy-dronic (hot-water) convectors. In this system hot water from a boiler or steam-operated hot water converter is circulated through a finned tube, usually mounted horizontally behind a simple metal cover which provides an air inlet opening below the tube and an outlet above. Room air is drawn through the convector by natural convection where it is warmed in passing over the finned tube. A variation on the horizontal finned-tube hydronic convector is...

1

*Locked rotor kVA is equal to the product of the line voltage times motor current divided by 1,000 when the motor is not allowed to rotate this corresponds to the first power surge required to start the motor. Locked-rotor kVA per horsepower range includes the lower figure up to but not including the higher figure. The design letter is an indication of the shape of the torque speed curve. Figure 11.2 shows the typical shape of the most commonly used design letters. They are A, B, C, and D....

Where to Look For Energy Saving Opportunities

The continuous blowdown from any steam-generating equipment has the potential for energy savings whether it is a fired boiler or waste-heat-steam generator. The following items should be carefully considered to maximize savings 1. Reduce blowdown (BD) by adjustment of the blow-down valve such that the controlling water impurity is held at the maximum allowable level. 2. Maintain blowdown continuously at the minimum acceptable level. This may be achieved by frequent manual adjustments or by the...

2281Introduction

Like anything else, there are different grades of instruments with corresponding costs, so the task of the specifier is to separate the needs from the wants, and to balance the performance with the costs. With an awareness of some of the basic considerations and of instrument grades and selection criteria, good decisions are usually evident. Leaving the instrument selection entirely up to the vendor may or may not be the best approach. To the extent that the 'standard offering' instrument...

08

Beardsley. Bulletin No. 2, Georgia School of Technology, 1938, except c3hs and c4h,0, which are from h. M. Spencer, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 67 (1945), p. 1859. Aluminum Polished, 98 pure Commercial sheet Rough plate Heavily oxidized Antimony Polished Bismuth Bright Brass Highly polished Polished Dull plate Oxidized Chromium Unoxidized Copper Highly polished electrolytic Polished Slightly polished Polished, lightly tarnished Dull Pure,...

214 Buying Natural

To buy natural gas for either small or large operations, a thorough knowledge of the structure of the natural gas marketing system is essential. Again, this is the big change from the days when the industry was under price regulation by the federal government. Gas sales to consumers were through only one route producers to pipeline transporter and merchant to local distributor to consumer. In the beginning of the transition to open marketing, this was referred to as system gas. In localities...

22153 23345

1748.0 1803.5 110.76 116.72 1747.9 1803.4 73.833 77.807 1747.8 1803.4 55.370 58.352 1747.8 1803.3 27.676 29.168 1747.5 1803.0 18.445 19.441 1746.2 1802.0 7.8946 8.3233 1745.3 1801.2 5.5209 5.8219 1745.0 1800.9 4.4131 4.6546 1744.2 1800.2 3.6746 3.8764 1743.4 1799.6 3.1471 3.3205 1742.6 1798.9 2.7515 2.9037 1741.9 1798.2 2.1977 2.3200 1740.3 1796.9 1.8284 1.9309 1738.8 1795.6 1.5647 1.6530 1737.2 1794.3 1.3669 1.4446 1736.0 1792.9 1.2131 1.2825 1734.1 1791.6 1.0901 1.1529 perature will rise....

Communications Technology

Though most digital control systems rely on hardwired connections between devices, there are alternative technologies that can be used to simply installation (particularly in retrofit applications), provide a communication link with remote locations, and increase data transmission rates. These include Power Line Carrier (PLC). PLC systems use the existing electrical wiring system as a means of achieving inter-device communication. This is accomplished when a device generates a high frequency...

Description Of The Method

Method 1 Single point with manufacturer's performance data Measure i) energy input to system (e.g., electricity, natural gas, hot water or steam), ii) thermal output of system, iii) temperature of surrounding environment (adjust for differences in efficiency with manufacturer's data). single zone (constant mode) 2-pipe fan coil units (constant mode) ventilating and heating units, single speed window air conditioners

Table 85 Waste Heat Streams from Reheat Furnace Fired with Natural

Exhaust Stack Cooling Product Combustion Products Water Steel Castings Enthalpy rate (Btu hr) Percent fuel energy rate Figure 8.13 Temperature distribution in recuperator. h comb. air, out h comb. air, in h stack gas, in h stack gas, out different. The annual heat recovery for each fuel was assumed to be proportional to the total consumption of each fuel, so that the heat recovered was found as Figure 8.13 Temperature distribution in recuperator. also become the high limits for the combustion...

8 1 Introduction

Waste heat, in the most general sense, is the energy associated with the waste streams of air, exhaust gases, and or liquids that leave the boundaries of a plant or building and enter the environment. It is implicit that these streams eventually mix with the atmospheric air or the groundwater and that the energy, in these streams, becomes unavailable as useful energy. The absorption of waste energy by the environment is often termed thermal pollution. In a more restricted definition, and one...

1233Input Output Point Definition

The third step is to define the input and output points required to achieve the monitoring and control desired, in the most cost-effective or efficient manner. This requires an in-depth appraisal of such items as the equipment list, layout of building spaces, method of building construction, HVAC physical plant makeup and layout, methods of heating and cooling, types of secondary HVAC distribution systems and controls, and the condition of the mechanical equipment and existing controls. The...

1412 Prepare a List of Routine Maintenance Actions with Time Estimates Materials and Frequency for Each

This is the second step in the four-step procedure for developing a maintenance program. The first step was to determine the present condition of each system in the facility, using Tables 14.1 to 14.8 to help locate trouble spots. The products of this step are (1) a list of all the equipment in the facility by system (2) a list of the major one-time maintenance problems associated with this equipment and (3) a notebook with these lists and with the diagrams for each of the major systems. The...

42306

Source Thermochemical data are from the JANAF Thermochemical Tables, Thermal Research Laboratory, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland Mich. The date each table was issued is indicated. Source Thermochemical data are from the JANAF Thermochemical Tables, Thermal Research Laboratory, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland Mich. The date each table was issued is indicated.

100

Combustion efficiency ( ) enthalpy of products (Btu lb) enthalpy of fuel (Btu lb) enthalpy of combustion air, Btu lb heat inputs (Btu hr) Vfuel * HHV+Qc indirect combustion efficiency can be related to direct efficiency or direct heat loss efficiency measurements using the following 117,118 on the right side of the equation the loss terms are usually small for well insulated boilers. These terms must be accounted for when boilers are poorly insulated or operated poorly (i.e., excessive blowdown...

Hvac

By defining individual audits in this manner, it is easy to identify the proper team for the audit. Don't neglect to bring in outside people such as electric utility and natural gas representatives to be team members. Scheduling the audits, then, can contribute to the events that will keep the program active. With the maturing of performance contracting, energy managers have two choices for the energy audit process. They may go through the contracting process to select and define the work of a...

1055Economizers

One advantage of all-air HVAC systems is that they can utilize outside air to condition interior spaces when it is at an appropriate temperature. The use of outside air to actively cool interior spaces is referred to as an economizer, or economizer cycle. Whenever the outside air is cooler than the cooling setpoint temperature only distribution energy is required to provide cooling with outside air. When the outside air temperature is above the setpoint temperature but less than the return air...

246 The Impact Of Deregulation

Historically, electricity prices have varied by a factor of two to one or greater, depending upon where in the county the power is purchased. See Figure 24.2. These major differences even occur in utility jurisdictions that are joined. The cost of power has varied because of several factors, some of which are under the utilities control and some that are not, such as Decisions on projected load growth All of these factors contribute to the range of pricing. Customers have been clamoring for the...

4010

Basis (1) gas turbine performance given for 80 F ambient temperature, sea-level site (2) HRSG performance based on 3 blowdown, 1-1 2 radiation and unaccounted losses, 228 F feedwater (3) no HRSG bypass stack loss (4) gas turbine exhaust pressure loss is 10 in. H2O with unfired, 14 in. H2O with supplementary fired, and 20 in. H2O with fully fired HRSG (5) fully fired HRSG based on 10 excess air following the firing system and 300 F stack. (6) fuel chargeable to gas turbine power assumes total...

13 The Energy Management Profession

Energy management skills are important to people in many organizations, and certainly to people who perform duties such as energy auditing, facility or building management, energy and economic analysis, and maintenance. The number of companies employing professionally trained energy managers is large and growing. A partial list of job titles is given in Figure 1.2. Even though this is only a partial list, the breadth shows the robustness of the profession. For some of these people, energy...

Synchronous Speed

This is the speed at which the magnetic field within the motor is rotating. It is also approximately the speed that the motor will run under no load condition. For example, a 4 pole motor running in 60 cycles would have a magnetic field speed of 1800 RPM. The no load speed of that motor shaft would be very close to 1800, probably 1798 or 1799 RPM. The full load speed of the same motor might be 1745 RPM. The difference between the synchronous speed of the full load speed is called the slip RPM...

Basic Principle Of Operation

The magnetic coupled concept differs vastly from variable frequency drives in that there is no electrical power interruption to the motor. With the motor running continuously, precise speed control is accomplished by varying the magnetic coupling between the motor's output shaft and the load. Most configurations are comprised of two primary elements Electromagnet (multi-pole rotor) mounts onto the shaft of the motor. One element (input portion) is affixed to the motors shaft so as to run...

752 Cogeneration Evaluation Case Examples

The following examples illustrate evaluation procedures used for cogeneration studies. Both examples are based on 1980 investment costs for facilities located in the U.S. Gulf Coast area. For simplicity, the economic merit of each alternative examined is expressed as the gross payout period (GPO). The GPO is equal to the incremental investment for cogeneration divided by the resulting first-year annual operating cost savings. The GPO can be converted to a discounted rate of return (DRR) using...

10000

Figure 26.14 ChW data for the Kleberg Building for January 2001- June 200255. Figure 26.14 ChW data for the Kleberg Building for January 2001- June 200255. important that the perspective of operational personnel be included in the design process so it will be possible to effectively and efficiently operate the building. One of the best ways to accomplish these objectives is to commission the building as it is designed and built. The primary motivation for commissioning HVAC systems is generally...

Series System Advantages Single path flow and

Pipe size easier air removal from the system slightly higher thermal performance per linear foot of Figure 28.4. Soil temperature variation Source OSU (1988) (b) Earth surface temperature amplitude, As ( F) Figure 28.3. Mean annual soil temperatures. Source OSU (1988) Figure 28.4. Soil temperature variation Source OSU (1988) Smaller pipe diameter has lower unit cost lower volume requires less antifreeze smaller pressure drop resulting in smaller pumping load lower installation labor cost. pipe...

Table 214 Federal Agencies Natural Gas Trade Associations

INFORMATION & SERVICES WEBSITE FEDERAL & MAJOR STATE AGENCIES FOR NATURAL GAS & ENERGY REGULATION 2 Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Agency Information on offshore production of gas and oil Information on energy products supply, demand, consumption, prices, 3 Department of Transportation Regulates the safety of pipelines used in transporting www.dot.gov Regulates natural gas pipeline tariffs and facilities. Regulatory board for Louisiana natural gas operations. 4 Federal...