Advanced electric vehicle conversion project

Hybrid Cars The Whole Truth Revealed

Hybrid Cars The Whole Truth Revealed

Hybrid Cars! Man! Is that a HOT topic right now! There are some good reasons why hybrids are so hot. If you’ve pulled your present car or SUV or truck up next to a gas pumpand inserted the nozzle, you know exactly what I mean! I written this book to give you some basic information on some things<br />you may have been wondering about.

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Electricity 4 Gas

Anyone can build their own electric car regardless of skill, and after following the information in my manual, I promise: For only a few hundred dollars you will have an electric car that rivals anything the large automakers can produce. Your electric car will look good. Your electric car will travel at 50 mph. You can drive up to 100 miles on a single charge. You will be completely satisfied. Here are just a few of the topics covered in this manual: The parts and tools needed before you start Without this information your whole attempt to create an electric car will be pointless. How to find Free batteries and other Free parts for your electric car. Simple illustrations and diagrams to follow. Complete setup instructions and step by step instructions to convert your gas-guzzling car to an electric car.

Electricity 4 Gas Overview


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1 Electric Vehicle Batteries

The present rate of reliance and consumption of fossil fuels for electrification or transportation is 100,000 times faster than the rate at which they are being created by natural forces. As the readily exploited fuels continue to be consumed, the fossil fuels are becoming more costly and difficult to extract. In order to transform the demands on the development of energy systems based on renewable resources, it is important to find an alternative to fossil fuels. Little progress has been made in using electricity generated from a centralized power grid for transportation purposes. In 1900, the number of electric cars outnumbered the gasoline cars by almost a factor of two. In addition to being less polluting, the electric cars in 1900 were silent machines. As favorites of the urban social elite, the electric cars were the cars of choice as they did not require the difficult and rather dangerous handcrank starters. This led to the development of electric vehicles (EVs) by more than...

1Introduction to Electric Vehicles

Environmental as well as economical issues provide a compelling impetus to develop clean, efficient, and sustainable vehicles for urban transportation. Automobiles constitute an integral part of our everyday life, yet the exhaust emissions of conventional internal combustion (IC) engine vehicles are to blame for the major source of urban pollution that causes the greenhouse effect leading to global warming.1 The dependence on oil as the sole source of energy for passenger vehicles has economical and political implications, and the crisis will inevitably become acute as the oil reserve of the world diminishes. The number of automobiles on our planet doubled to about a billion or so in the last 10 years. The increasing number of automobiles being introduced on the road every year is only adding to the pollution problem. There is also an economic factor inherent in the poor energy conversion efficiency of combustion engines. Although the number for alternative electric vehicles is not...

14 Electric Vehicles for the Future

The future of electric vehicles, of course, remains to be written. However, the need for vehicles that minimise the damage to the environment is urgent. Much of the technology to produce such vehicles has been developed and the cost, currently high in many cases, is likely to drop with increasing demand, which will allow quantity production. The following chapters describe the key technologies that are the basis of electric vehicles now and in the future batteries (Chapter 2), other energy stores such as capacitors and flywheels (Chapter 3), fuel cells (Chapter 4), hydrogen supply (Chapter 5), and electric motors (Chapter 6). Once the basic concepts are understood, their incorporation into vehicles can be addressed. A very important aspect of this is vehicle performance modelling, and so Chapter 7 is devoted to this topic. The final chapters address the important topics of the design of safe and stable vehicles, and of the 'comfort facilities' that are essential in a modern car....

15 Electric vehicle drives optimum solutions for motors drives and batteries

There is no doubt that the long-term power supply for electric vehicles will be some form of hydrogen fuel cell, the leading current technology being the PEM membrane system as manufactured by Vickers Ballard. This is a complete system measuring 30 x 18 x 12 inches which produces about 5 kW at 45 efficiency.

97 Electric Vehicle Recharging and Refuelling Systems

Clearly there is no use in introducing electric vehicles without introducing recharging systems for battery vehicles and refueling systems for fuel cell vehicles. The topic of battery charging was covered in Section 2.8 in the chapter on batteries. In places such as California, and parts of France and Switzerland, where there has been active encouragement of battery electric vehicles, recharging points have been located around cities. Since battery electric cars are usually used for short journeys, of a fairly predictable kind, or at least within a limited region, users will know where charging points are located. Should rechargeable electric vehicles become more widespread, more thought would be needed as to how and where charging points would be situated, and making this information widely known. How the electricity would be paid for would then become more of an issue. In addition, where necessary, suitable electric supply lines would need to be provided and appropriate generating...

1 Hybrid Electric Vehicles

A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a vehicle in which at least one of the energy sources, stores, or converters can deliver electric energy. A hybrid road vehicle is one in which the propulsion energy during specified operational missions is available from two or more kinds or types of energy stores, sources, or converters, of which at least one store or converter must be on board. The second definition of hybrid road vehicle is proposed by Technical Committee 69 of Electric Road Vehicles of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The HEV serves as a compromise for the environmental pollution problem and the limited range capability of today's purely electric vehicle. HEVs have an electric motor as well as an internal combustion engine (ICE) to provide extended range and to curve down the pollution problem. Vehicle design complexity increases significantly with hybrid vehicles, because controls and support systems are needed for a thermal engine and an electric machine in...

Range Testing Of Electric Vehicles Using Fast Charging

The constant speed range of electric vehicles (EVs) is tested using ETA-TP004 and SAE J227a test profiles. However, using rapid charging, the EV can be charged in a short time. But in order to successfully perform range tests on the EV, there is a set of initial conditions that must be satisfied

9Electric Vehicle Drivetrain

The transmission elements and the propulsion unit combined are referred to as the drivetrain of the vehicle. The transmission is the mechanical linkage that transmits power between the electric motor shaft and the wheels. The drivetrain is also often referred to as the powertrain of the vehicle. The drivetrain of an electric vehicle (EV) consists of the electric motor, gearbox, driveshaft (only in rear-wheel drives), differential, half-shafts, and wheels. The ability of electric motors to start from zero speed and operate efficiently over a wide speed range makes it possible to eliminate the clutch that is used in internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV). A single gear ratio is sufficient to match the wheel speed with the motor speed. EVs can be designed without a gear, but the use of a speed reducer allows the electric motor to operate at much higher speeds for given vehicle speeds, which minimizes the motor size because of the low torque requirement at higher speeds. The...

561goods Van To Fleet Car Conversion

Europe's largest maker of EVs is Peugeot-Citroen whose Berlingo Dynavolt, Fig. 5.18, sets out to maximize the benefits of electric vehicles in a fleet car. It has a range extender in the form of an auxiliary generating system which does not quite make the vehicle a hybrid in the conventional sense. The generator feeds current into the traction motor rather than into the battery pack. The generator engine is a 16 ps, 500 cc Lombardini running on LPG which drives a Dynalto-style starter generator unit developing 8 kW at 3300 rpm, to supplement the supply from the 4 kW Saft Ni-Cad batteries. Company designed software controls the cut-in of the generator according to range requirements. The range is 80 km, which can be extended to 260 km with generator assistance. Series production was imminent as we went to press.

6 Electric Vehicle Battery Discharging

Commencing with a fully charged battery, the battery is discharged by applying the scaled DST power profile. The 360-second discharge test is repeated with minimal time delay (rest period) between the discharge profiles until the end-of-discharge point specified in the test plan or the battery voltage limit, whichever occurs first, is reached. The end-of-discharge point is based on the net battery capacity removed (total Ahr-regeneration Ahr). In addition, the DST test provides insight into the VRLA battery's changing internal resistance simulating the dynamic driving conditions of the electric vehicle (EV).

541 Electric Vehicle Development 19741998

In considering the changes which have taken place in the quarter century since the start of the Lucas project, Harding argues that the developments which have taken place in electric cars are not as great as had been hoped and expected. Some hybrids, he considers, are effectively ICEVs with an electric drive which assists when required. A major problem with HEVs has been their cost, which is exacerbated by having two drive systems in one vehicle. Fortunately, the automotive industry is so good at meeting challenges of this nature that who can say what can be achieved However, it is claimed that micro-turbines together with their associated generators and accessories can be produced cheaply, mainly because they have a very low component count. These turbines are capable of operating on a wide variety of fuels and are considered to produce a very low level of pollutants, but with one or two exceptions such as Volvo and Chrysler, these claims have not been subjected to any extensive...

13 Types of Electric Vehicle in Use Today

Developments of ideas from the 19th and 20th centuries are now utilised to produce a new range of electric vehicles that are starting to make an impact. There are effectively six basic types of electric vehicle, which may be classed as follows. Firstly there is the traditional battery electric vehicle, which is the type that usually springs to mind when people think of electric vehicles. However, the second type, the hybrid electric vehicle, which combines a battery and an IC engine, is very likely to become the most common type in the years ahead. Thirdly there are vehicles which use replaceable fuel as the source of energy using either fuel cells or metal air batteries. Fourthly there are vehicles supplied by power lines. Fifthly there are electric vehicles which use energy directly from solar radiation. Sixthly there are vehicles that 1.3.1 Battery electric vehicles The concept of the battery electric vehicle is essentially simple and is shown in Figure 1.5. The vehicle consists of...

74 Modelling Electric Vehicle Range

Quando Ocorrr Ebulicao Agua

It is well known that the range of electric vehicles is a major problem. In the main this is because it is so hard to efficiently store electrical energy. In any case, this problem is certainly a critical issue in the design of any electric vehicle. There are two types of calculation or test that can be performed with regard to the range of a vehicle. In the European scene the cycles tend to be rather simpler, with periods of constant acceleration and constant velocity. Of particular note is the ECE-15 drive cycle, shown in Figure 7.10, which is useful for testing the performance of small vehicles such as battery electric cars. In EC emission tests this has to be combined the extra-urban driving cycles (EUDC), which has a maximum speed of 120km.h-1. All these standards have maximum speeds in the region of 100km.h-1. For several important types of electric vehicle, including the electric delivery vehicle and the electric motor scooter, this is an unrealistic speed, which can often not...

202 The battery electric vehicles

Civil Layout Diagram

Honda has been installing 24 NiMH 12 V batteries in its electric cars for export to the US, and Toyota has been using the same type of battery in its electric vehicles. Since 1971 Toyota has developed the TownAce, an electric van, the Crown Majesta Saloon, the RAV4 and e-com, the last mentioned being a mini electric commuter vehicle. Fig. 20.1 Block diagram representing the layout of the Toyota battery powered RAVA electric vehicle Fig. 20.1 Block diagram representing the layout of the Toyota battery powered RAVA electric vehicle

86 Electric Vehicle Chassis and Body Design

This section is intended to give guidance on the design of chassis for electric vehicles. Chassis design should be carried out in conjunction with other texts on chassis design, not to mention computer packages that specialise in this area. Nevertheless a basic understanding of what the chassis should do and other parameters related to electric vehicle chassis is needed. In recent times the body and chassis have been combined as a monocoque so that every part, including the glazing, adds to the strength and stiffness, resulting in a much lighter vehicle. Either monocoques or separate chassis body units are an acceptable basis for design. Despite the popularity of monocoques, several modern electric vehicles use a separate chassis, most notably the advanced new General Motors Hy-wire fuel cell vehicle, which will be discussed in more detail later. Chassis body design requires optimisation of conflicting requirements such as cost and strength, or performance and energy efficiency. There...

Pefc Drive Electric Vehicle

Fuel Cells for Electric Vehicle Efforts have been made to develop fuel cell powered EVs (electric vehicles) in several countries and to demonstrate its high potential. Since 1990 fuel cell research has been conducted at FUT (the Fukui University of Technology) beginning with PAFC. Research effort is now being focused upon the application of fuel cells to the EV drive as this technology shows great future potential, particularly in the area concerning environmental protection.

8 Testing And Computerbased Modeling Of Electric Vehicle Batteries

As the electric vehicle (EV) development continues, it is important to simulate and validate the development of advanced batteries for electric and hybrid-EV applications. From an end-to-end system perspective, it is important to validate the performance of the batteries by defining the performance envelope of the battery pack. This includes subjecting the traction battery pack to in-vehicle testing for electric and hybrid-EV applications. Integrated with the computer-based simulation, the performance analysis provides a baseline for the battery pack in real-world driving conditions.

55 Contemporary electric car technology

According to Sir Clive Sinclair, whose abortive efforts to market an electric tricycle have led him to concentrate on economical bicycle conversions, peak efficiencies of 90 are available with EVs for converting electricity into tractive energy - and that attainable electrical generating efficiencies of over 50 meant a 45 fuel conversion efficiency could be obtained compared with 30 for the petrol engine. His C10 proposal shown in Fig. 5.12 must mean his faith in the future of the electric car is still maintained. There are other initiatives, too, such as the desire to make motorway driving under very high density peak traffic conditions less dangerous and less tiring. This is generating fresh interest in reserved lanes for vehicle guidance systems. Where these additionally provide roadway-induced powering, Fig. 5.13, as described by researchers from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory6, a case for a car to suit relatively long-distant commuters can be made. The success of...

12 Developments Towards the End of the 20th Century

During the latter part of the 20th century there have been changes which may make the electric vehicle a more attractive proposition. Firstly there are increasing concerns about the environment, both in terms of overall emissions of carbon dioxide and also the local emission of exhaust fumes which help make crowded towns and cities unpleasant to live in. Secondly there have been technical developments in vehicle design and improvements to rechargeable batteries, motors and controllers. In addition batteries which can be refueled and fuel cells, first invented by William Grove in 1840, have been developed to the point where they are being used in electric vehicles. Environmental issues may well be the deciding factor in the adoption of electric vehicles for town and city use. Leaded petrol has already been banned, and there have been attempts in some cities to force the introduction of zero emission vehicles. The state of California has encouraged motor vehicle manufacturers to produce...

210 Use of Batteries in Hybrid Vehicles

There are many combinations of batteries, engines and mechanical flywheels which allow optimisation of electric vehicles. The best known is the combination of IC engine and rechargeable battery, but more than one type of battery can be used in combination, and the use of batteries and flywheels can have advantages. This type of hybrid electric vehicle, IC engine with battery, is by the most common, and is likely to be the most important type of electric car in the near and even medium term. It seems that the majority of such vehicles currently use nickel metal hydride batteries, with a storage capacity typically between about 2 and 5 kWh. (Note that the energy stored in a normal car battery is between about 0.3 and 1.0 kWh.)

96Wing Mirrors Aerials and Luggage Racks

Modern video systems can be used to replace wing mirrors. Small video cameras are placed at critical spots and relayed to a screen where the driver's mirror is traditionally located. This system has the added advantage of giving better all round visibility. The screen can be split to give information from all round the car at a glance, which would be very useful for city driving where electric vehicles are liable to be used. This system is used on the GM Hy-wire experimental electric car shown in Figure 8.16. The rear view screen is placed in the middle of the steering device.

75 Simulations a Summary

We have seen in this chapter how to begin the simulation or modelling of the range and performance of electric vehicles. With most vehicles the simulation of performance, by which we usually mean acceleration, is fairly straightforward. Mathematical software such as MATLAB or EXCEL lend themselves very well to this. In the case of the classical battery powered electric vehicle, and fuel cell vehicles using stored hydrogen, the modelling of range, though considerably more complex, is not difficult. For hybrid vehicles a great deal of care and thought is needed in setting up a simulation. We have shown the fact that a vehicle mathematical model is crucially important in the design of electric vehicles, as it allows the designer very quickly to try out different design options, and at virtually no cost. By using examples of the GM EV1 electric car, and an electric scooter, we have shown how even a quite simple mathematical model is validated by the performance of the real vehicle....

41 Fuel Cells a Real Option

They were invented in about 1840, but they are yet to really make their mark as a power source for electric vehicles. However, this might be set to change over the next 20 or 30 years. Certainly most of the major motor companies are spending very large sums of money developing fuel cell powered vehicles. Electric Vehicle Technology Explained James Larminie and John Lowry 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd ISBN 0-470-85163-5 Articles within outline the possibilities presented by fuel cell powered electric vehicles. (Reproduced Articles within outline the possibilities presented by fuel cell powered electric vehicles. (Reproduced

24 Nickelbased batteries

The nickel cadmium battery was considered to be one of the main competitors to the lead acid battery for use in electric vehicles and these batteries have nearly twice the specific energy of lead acid batteries. Nickel cadmium batteries have been widely used in many appliances, including use in electric vehicles. The NiCad battery has advantages of high specific power, a long life cycle (up to 2500 cycles), a wide range of operating temperatures from 40 C to +80 C, a low self-discharge and good long term storage. This is because the battery is a very stable system, with equivalent reactions to the self-discharge of the lead acid battery (equations (2.4) and (2.5)) only taking place very slowly. The NiCad batteries can be purchased in a range of sizes and shapes, though they are not easy to obtain in the larger sizes required for electric vehicles, their main market being portable tools and electronic equipment. They are also very robust both mechanically and electrically and can be...

85 Consideration of Vehicle Mass

The mass of an electrical vehicle has a critical effect on the performance, range and cost of an electric vehicle. The first effect of the mass on rolling resistance and the power and energy to overcome this has already been discussed in Section 8.3. Figure 8.10 shows the total power needed to travel at a constant 80kph up slopes of varying angles up to 10 for vehicles of two different weights, but otherwise similar. They are based loosely on the GM EV1 electric car studied in Chapter 7. They both have a drag coefficient of 0.19, and tyres with coefficient of rolling resistance of 0.005, and the frontal area is 1.8 m2. We can see that the 1500 kg car, which is approximately the weight of the real GM EV1, has to provide approximately 12 times as much power at 10 than is Looking at Figure 8.10 we see why the GM EV1 electric car needs a motor of power about 100 kW. In the SFUDS simulation we noted that the maximum power needed was only 12 kW, as in Figure 7.16. It is taking heavy...

106Using Sustainable Energy with Fuelled Vehicles

It must be remembered when considering the energy impact of electric vehicles that conventional IC engine vehicles can also use sustainable energy, as mentioned before. In Brazil for example vehicles have been fuelled by ethanol, made from sugar cane for nearly 3 decades. About 14 billion litres of ethanol are produced annually from sugar cane grown for this purpose. Efficiencies of IC engine vehicles, together with the quietness and the cleanliness of their exhausts, improve all the time, taking the sting out of some of the criticisms of conventional vehicles. This must be borne in mind when comparing electric vehicles with those with internal combustion engines.

107The Role of Regulations and Law Makers

The question which is bound to be asked is if society develops suitable electric vehicles using rechargeable batteries or fuel cells, can we use only sustainable energy for transport and totally eliminate exhaust pollutants The answer is undoubtedly 'yes' particularly in the long term, and if society is prepared to pay for this. However, the power of law and regulation is important in making individual people make choices, in favour of less pollution at a higher price. One of the major roles of society is a 'collective coercion to be good,' and this can be seen very clearly in the case of electric vehicles. This is best illustrated by the actions of California through its Air Resources Board (CARB). This organisation was a major promoter of the now almost universal catalytic converter on IC engine exhausts. It has had a huge impact on the development of electric vehicles. Regulations such as these from the CARB will certainly be a very major influence on the future development of...

105 Alternative and Sustainable Energy Used via the Grid

There is no reason at all why alternative sustainable forms of energy such as solar, wind, hydro, tidal, wave, biomass, waste and energy taken from under sea currents should not be used to provide energy to electric vehicles via the grid. In some ways this is a much better option than powering electric vehicles directly from small wind generators and solar panels, where the energy is wasted when the vehicle is not directly charging. With the grid the energy can be transferred from one use to another. When electricity is not being supplied to one consumer it will be supplied to another. When there is ample electricity from alternative sources it will be used, fossil-fuelled generators being switched off to save fuel. When there is less alternative energy the fossil-fuelled generators will be used, the customer not experiencing any break in supply during periods of little sun, wind or tide. Also, the grid allows electric vehicles to be supplied with energy from all available energy...

29 The Designers Choice of Battery

Of the batteries discussed in this chapter the ones which are now available commercially for use in electric vehicles include lead acid, nickel cadmium, nickel metal hydride, sodium metal chloride (Zebra) and lithium ion. For comparative purposes these batteries are shown in Table 2.10

62 DC Regulation and Voltage Conversion

Despite the fact that the switching is achieved by just a pulse of current, the energy needed to effect the switching is much greater than for the MOSFET or the IGBT. Furthermore, the switching times are markedly longer. The only advantage of the thyristor (in its various forms) for DC switching is that higher currents and voltages can be switched. However, the maximum power of IGBTs is now so high that this is very unlikely to be an issue in electric vehicle systems, which are usually below 1MW in power.4 We should at this point briefly mention the 'linear' regulator circuit. The principle is shown in Figure 6.14. A transistor is used again, but this time it is not switched fully on or fully off. Rather, the gate voltage is adjusted so that its resistance is at the correct value to drop the voltage to the desired value. This resistance will vary continuously, depending on the load current and the supply voltage. This type of circuit is widely used in small electronic systems, but...

25 Sodiumbased Batteries

In the 1980s a range of batteries which use a liquid sodium negative electrode were developed. These batteries differ from other batteries in so much as they run at high temperatures. They also have the interesting features of using one or more liquid electrodes in the form of molten sodium and using a solid ceramic electrolyte. Because of the need to operate at high temperatures they are only practical for large systems, such as electric cars they are not suitable for scooters and cycles. They are rather more exotic than other types, as they will never be used in mobile phones or laptop computers, unlike the other types of battery that we will consider in this chapter. This limitation on their market has rather impeded their commercial development. A major problem with the Zebra battery is that it needs to operate at a temperature of about 320 C, similar to the sodium sulphur. Heat insulation is maintained by the use of a double skinned stainless steel box, with 2-3 cm of insulation...

211 Battery Modelling

The purpose of our battery simulations is to be able to predict the performance of electric vehicles, in terms of range, acceleration, speed and so on, a topic covered in reasonable depth in Chapter 7. In these simulations the speed of the vehicles changes fairly slowly, and the dynamic behaviour of the battery makes a difference that is small compared to the other approximations we have to make along the way. Therefore, in this introduction to battery simulation we will use the basic equivalent circuit of Figure 2.1. This phenomenon is particularly important for electric vehicles, as in this application the currents are generally higher, with the result that the capacity might be less than is expected. It is important to be able to predict the effect of current on capacity, both when designing vehicles, and when making instruments that measure the charge left in a battery battery fuel gauges. Knowing the depth of discharge of a battery is also essential for finding the open circuit...

23 Lead Acid Batteries

The best known and most widely used battery for electric vehicles is the lead acid battery. Lead acid batteries are widely used in IC engine vehicles and as such are well known. However for electric vehicles, more robust lead acid batteries that withstand deep cycling and use a gel rather than a liquid electrolyte are used. These batteries are more expensive to produce. battery, is totally unsuitable for electric vehicle applications. Other lead acid batteries are designed for occasional use in emergency lighting and alarms these are also totally unsuitable. The difference in manufacture is dealt with by authors such as Vincent and Scrosati (1998). It is only batteries of the 'traction' or 'deep cycling' type that are suitable here. This is the most expensive type of lead acid battery. All these problems mean that the life of the lead acid battery is limited to around 700 cycles, though this strongly depends on the depth of the cycles. Experience with industrial trucks (fork-lifts,...

73 Modelling Vehicle Acceleration

The acceleration of a car or motorcycle is a key performance indicator, though there is no standard measure used. Typically the time to accelerate from standstill to 60 mph, or 30 or 50kph will be given. The nearest to such a standard for electric vehicles are the 0-30 kph and 0-50kph times, though these times are not given for all vehicles. Such acceleration figures are found from simulation or testing of real vehicles. For IC engined vehicles this is done at maximum power, or 'wide open throttle' (WOT). Similarly, for electric vehicles performance simulations are carried out at maximum torque. For our second example we will use a vehicle that had an important impact on the recent development of electric cars. The GM EV1 was arguably the first modern electric car from one of the really large motor companies. It incorporated technologies that were quite novel for its time, and is indeed still unsurpassed as a design of battery electric car. Several views of this vehicle are shown in...

65 Electrical Machines for Hybrid Vehicles

The motors and alternators used in hybrid electric vehicles are in principle no different from those described above. Indeed in many cases there is no significant difference between the motors used in hybrid vehicles than any other type. The basic principles of some types of hybrid vehicle were described in Chapter 1. In the series hybrid vehicle there is really nothing different about the electrical machines from those used in a host of other applications. The traction motor, for example, will work in the same way as in the case of the classic battery powered electric vehicle.

102Vehicle Pollution the Effects

Electric Vehicle Technology Explained James Larminie and John Lowry 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd ISBN 0-470-85163-5 One significant problem with internal combustion engine vehicles in slow traffic is that fuel consumption rises very dramatically as vehicles crawl along at slow speeds and pollution gets considerably worse. This is illustrated in Figure 10.1. With electric vehicles there will be a small decrease in efficiency of the electric motor when used at low speeds but the efficiency of batteries such as lead acid increases resulting in a fairly steady efficiency across the speed range. In cities such as London and Tokyo the average speeds are normally less than 15 kph and in rush hour are considerably less. The simplest way of creating zero emission vehicles is to adopt electric vehicles, or at least hybrid vehicles which solely run on electricity when in the town and city environment. However, the total pollution impact of vehicles and their energy use cannot be ignored, and...

64 Motor Cooling Efficiency Size and Mass

Higher speed leads to higher power density. The size of the motor is most strongly influenced by the motor torque than power. The consequence is that a higher speed, lower torque motor will be smaller. So if a low speed rotation is needed, a high speed motor with a gearbox will be lighter and smaller than a low speed motor. A good example is an electric vehicle, where it would be possible to use a motor directly coupled to the axle. However, this is not often done, and a higher speed motor is connected by (typically) a 10 1 gearbox. Table 6.3 shows this, by giving the mass of a sample of induction motors of the same power but different speeds.

61 The Brushed DC Electric Motor

Electric vehicles use what can seem a bewildering range of different types of electric motor. However, the simplest form of electric motor, at least to understand, is the 'brushed' DC motor. This type of motor is very widely used in applications such as portable tools, toys, electrically operated windows in cars, and small domestic appliances such as hair dryers, even if they are AC mains powered.1 However, they are also still used as traction motors, although the other types of motor considered later in this chapter are becoming more common for this application. The brushed DC motor is a good starting point because, as well as being widely used, most of the important issues in electric motor control can be more easily explained with reference to this type of motor. Electric Vehicle Technology Explained James Larminie and John Lowry 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd ISBN 0-470-85163-5 The simple linear relationship between speed and torque, implied by equation (6.7), is replicated in...

92Heating and Cooling Systems

There is little point in producing the ultimate energy-efficient electric vehicle, light, aerodynamic and with high motor and transmission efficiencies, and then waste precious energy by passing current directly through a resistance to heat the vehicle. With IC engine vehicles, copious waste heat will quickly warm the vehicle, although starting off on a cold morning may be unpleasant. For fuel cell vehicles or hybrids with internal combustion engines waste heat is also available, but with battery powered electric vehicles there is little waste heat and where heating is required this must be supplied from a suitable source. Of course, heating does not need to be supplied for electric vehicles such as bikes and golf buggies. Vehicle cooling is often needed in hot climates and this can also absorb considerable energy. Electric Vehicle Technology Explained James Larminie and John Lowry 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd ISBN 0-470-85163-5 Both of these systems are relatively simple and are...

87 General Issues in Design

Before anyone sits down to design anything, including an electric vehicle they should write a design specification outlining precisely what they want to achieve. There are books devoted to the subject of writing specifications but it is worth briefly looking at the implications. Likewise, although any electric vehicle needs to be protected against corrosion, the environment in which the vehicle is likely to be used needs defining. A vehicle to be used in airport buildings clearly requires much less corrosion protection than one to be used on a seaside pier and constantly subjected to salt water spray. Obviously where vehicles may be used in different environments, the worst case must be allowed for. The main areas which need specifying for an electric vehicle are range, speed, acceleration, type of use (e.g. passenger commuter car or around town delivery van), performance up hill, legal requirements, target cost (both production and sales). Other parameters that need specifying...

82 Aerodynamic Considerations

It is well known that the more aerodynamic is a vehicle, the lower is its energy consumption. Bearing in mind the high cost of onboard electric energy, the aerodynamics of electric vehicles is particularly important, especially at high speeds. Electric Vehicle Technology Explained James Larminie and John Lowry 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd ISBN 0-470-85163-5 The aerodynamic drag coefficient for a saloon or hatchback car normally varies from 0.3 to 0.5, while that of reasonably aerodynamic van is around 0.5. For example, a Honda Civic hatchback has a frontal area of 1.9 m2 and a drag coefficient of 0.36. This can be reduced further by careful attention to aerodynamic detail. Good examples are the Honda Insight hybrid electric car, with a Cd of 0.25, and the General Motors EV1 electric vehicle with an even lower Cd of 0.19. The Bluebird record-breaking electric car had a Cd of 0.16 (A sphere has a Cd of 0.19.) The variation of battery power Padb for overcoming aerodynamic drag with...

22 Battery Parameters

All electric cells have nominal voltages which gives the approximate voltage when the cell is delivering electrical power. The cells can be connected in series to give the overall voltage required. Traction batteries for electric vehicles are usually specified as 6 V or 12 V, and these units are in turn connected in series to produce the voltage required. This voltage will, in practice, change. When a current is given out, the voltage will fall when the battery is being charged, the voltage will rise. Note that if the current I is zero, the terminal voltage is equal to E, and so E is often referred to as the open circuit voltage. If the battery is being charged, then clearly the voltage will increase by IR. In electric vehicle batteries the internal resistance should clearly be as low as possible.1 It is usually the case that while a battery may be able to provide 1 Amp for 10 hours, if 10 Amps are drawn from it, it will last less than one hour. It is most important to understand...

84 Transmission Efficiency

All of these have inefficiencies that cause a loss of power and energy. The transmission of electric vehicles is inherently simpler than that of IC engine vehicles. To start with no clutch is needed as the motor can provide torque from zero speed upwards. Similarly, a conventional gear box is not needed, as a single ratio gear is normally all that is needed. The three basic variations of electric vehicle transmission are illustrated in Figure 8.6. Figure 8.7 Example of type (a) of Figure 8.6 on an experimental electric vehicle by MES-DEA of Switzerland. The mounting of the motor is transverse, so there is no drive shaft Figure 8.7 Example of type (a) of Figure 8.6 on an experimental electric vehicle by MES-DEA of Switzerland. The mounting of the motor is transverse, so there is no drive shaft

112Rechargeable Battery Vehicles

Electric bicycles are probably the most popular type of battery electric vehicle. For example, thousands are used in China. There are many different manufacturers and types, with a very Electric Vehicle Technology Explained James Larminie and John Lowry 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd ISBN 0-470-85163-5 Figure 11.3 An example of the low speed vehicle (LSV) type of electric car Table 11.3 Specification of a typical low speed electric vehicle Table 11.3 Specification of a typical low speed electric vehicle Peugeot have always been very active in electric vehicles, and work with vans as well as cars. Two example vans are the 106 and the Partner. The Partner van is illustrated in Figure 11.4 and the specification of both is given in Table 11.4. There is also a 106 electric car, which has a similar specification to the van. The Peugeot electric vehicles are examples of conventional vehicles converted to electric vehicles. Their range is doubtless adequate for uses such as city deliveries,...

103 Vehicles Pollution a Quantitative Analysis

Energy for electric vehicles clearly has to come from somewhere. If battery electric vehicles are widely introduced the vast majority will have to be charged from the mains grid, where at present most electricity production comes from burning fossil fuels. At present sustainable sources of energy currently provide less than 10 of the energy used in the grid, so most of the electricity used for charging electric vehicles would be obtained from burning fossil fuels, including coal, gas and oil, at the power stations. For an efficient electric vehicle the efficiency of converting electrical energy supplied to the vehicle on charging to energy at the wheels will be around 50-60 . This means that the overall efficiency of converting fuel at the power station to wheel energy for electric vehicles is around 20 . The overall efficiency of internal combustion engine vehicles (energy delivered via the wheels fuel energy) under normal driving is typically 12-18 , a very similar figure to that of...

93 Design of the Controls

There are various configurations for the controls, and they can be configured perfectly normally steering wheel, accelerator and brake pedals, and the type of 'gear lever' normally found on an automatic transmission car. However, with an all-electric car it is possible to break out of this standard, and use different systems such as the stick controller illustrated in Figure 9.4. Normally a four quadrant electronic controller is used to control the motor, the first quadrant providing forward power and the second providing regenerative braking (the other two quadrants are used in reverse). Because one electronic controller is used for both acceleration and normal braking it is easier to use one lever to accelerate and brake the vehicle. The mechanical brakes could then be added to the extreme lever position. Some manufacturers have experimented with a one stick control, which incorporates both the steering, accelerator and brakes. A stick control fitted to an experimental vehicle is...

11 A Brief History

The first electric vehicles of the 1830s used non-rechargeable batteries. Half a century was to elapse before batteries had developed sufficiently to be used in commercial electric vehicles. By the end of the 19th century, with mass production of rechargeable batteries, electric vehicles became fairly widely used. Private cars, though rare, were quite likely to be electric, as were other vehicles such as taxis. An electric New York taxi from about 1901 is shown, with Lily Langtree alongside, in Figure 1.1. Indeed if performance was required, the electric cars were preferred to their internal combustion or steam powered rivals. Figure 1.2 shows the first car to exceed the 'mile a minute' speed (60mph) when the Belgium racing diver Camille Jenatzy, driving the electric vehicle known as 'La Jamais Contente',1 set a new land speed record of 106kph (65.7mph). This also made it the first car to exceed 100 kph. At the start of the 20th century electric vehicles must have looked a strong...

21 Introduction

We have seen in the previous chapter that there are many different types and sizes of electric vehicle. However, in nearly all cases the battery is a key component. In the classic electrical vehicle the battery is the only energy store, and the component with the highest cost, weight and volume. In hybrid vehicles the battery, which must continually accept and give out electrical energy, is also a key component of the highest importance. Some fuel cell vehicles have been made which have batteries that are no larger than those normally fitted to internal combustion engined cars, but it is probable that most early FC powered vehicles will have quite large batteries and work in hybrid fuel cell battery mode. In short, a good understanding of battery technology and performance is vital to anyone involved with electric vehicles. The 'lead acid' battery is the most well known rechargeable type, but there are others. The first electric vehicle using rechargeable batteries preceded the...

115 Conclusion

The future of electric vehicles, both in the short and the long term is very exciting. Firstly, there have been considerable developments in technology, which now allow advances in electric vehicle design to be made. Secondly, there are growing environmental concerns which are pressing society to find alternatives to IC engines alone as a source of power for vehicles. Environmental concerns encompass worries about carbon dioxide emissions and the effect of exhaust gas emissions on health. Thirdly, in the largest market for personal transport, the USA, there is an increasing realisation that fuel economy is important, for security reasons as well as environmental concerns. The Californian car market There have been three main areas where substantial developments in electric vehicles are currently occurring. The first is small rechargeable battery vehicles, secondly hybrid vehicles, and thirdly fuel cell vehicles. There has been a proliferation of small-scale commuter vehicles, bikes,...


At present many exciting developments in electric vehicle technology are taking place. Some of these have advanced sufficiently to be commercially available, whilst others remain for the future. During the last few years a variety of modern electric vehicles have come on the market for purchase, lease or for prototype trials. In this chapter some state-of-the-art electric vehicles that are available commercially, or which have undergone extensive trials, are discussed. Some of these are outstanding examples, some are simply representative. There are many fine examples not discussed simply because there is insufficient space to include them. In Chapter 1 we outlined six different types of electric vehicle. However, of these only the first three have made any real commercial headway. These are firstly rechargeable battery vehicles, secondly hybrid vehicles and thirdly electric vehicles which can be refuelled using either fuel cells or metal air batteries.


An important issue in ordinary IC engine vehicles is the ever-rising amount of electrical power required to drive the auxiliary systems. Indeed, this problem is very likely to cause a gradual moving over from 14 to 42 V electrical systems. The average power taken by the electrical systems on even a very ordinary car can be as much as 2kW. Clearly, this is a particularly important in battery electric vehicles, and most of the problems addressed in this chapter are a particular concern to this type of electric vehicle. The aim will always be to use systems of the lowest possible electrical power.

26 Lithium Batteries

Only in very small cells not suitable for electric vehicles The lithium ion battery has a considerable weight advantage over other battery systems, and this makes it a highly attractive candidate for future electric vehicle. The specific energy, for example, is about three times that of lead acid batteries, and this could give a car with a very reasonable range. However, large batteries are currently prohibitively expensive, and only when a commercial company has set up a production line which can produce lower-cost lithium ion batteries will their potential be fully realised. A few electric vehicles have been produced using lithium-based batteries, but they have been 'concept' type vehicles for demonstration purposes, to show what can be done. A notable example was an electric version of the Ford Ka produced in 2001 (Schmitz and Busch 2001).

33 Wind Power

Wind-driven electric generators can also be used to charge the batteries of stationary electric vehicles. Stationary wind generators, such as smaller versions of the one illustrated in Figure 10.6, are common methods of supplying power in areas without mains electricity. A stationary wind generator could be used in the same way as a stationary photovoltaic array. Alternatively it would be possible to mount a small generator on the roof of an electric vehicle, for charging when the vehicle was stationary. There would be no point in using it when the vehicle was in motion, as the power gained from the wind generator would be considerably less than the power lost by dragging the wind generator through the wind, the efficiency being less than 100 . Ideally, for aerodynamic reasons the wind generator would fold away when the vehicle was travelling. The concept of an onboard wind generator is illustrated in Figure 3.1. In windy places a wind generator 1.2m in diameter could produce up to...


Mankind is becoming increasingly concerned about the damage it is causing to the environment, and electric vehicles are perceived to play a part in redressing the balance. It is therefore important that the environmental impact of electric vehicles is thoroughly understood. Ultimately electric vehicles may be of substantial benefit, reducing harmful emissions. There is considerable misunderstanding at present as to precisely why electric vehicles can be of benefit, and the extent of that benefit. Firstly, it must be remembered that energy has to come from somewhere, normally power stations it does not just appear. A key part of the consideration of the environmental impact of vehicles is the so-called 'well to wheels' analysis, where the pollution of all parts of the energy cycle in the use of a vehicle is considered, not just the vehicle itself. A third aspect is how the availability of electric vehicles could move people towards more environmentally responsible modes of transport....

31 Introduction

In addition to conventional electrical power sources for electric vehicles such as batteries and fuel cells, there is a range of alternative options including solar photovoltaics, wind-driven generators, flywheels and supercapacitors. There are also older systems which may be important in the development of electric vehicles, particularly electric supply rails either with mechanical pick-ups or modern ones with an inductive supply.

113 Hybrid Vehicles

Adding an additional source of power such as an engine generator unit, or even a supply rail, is a simple way to extend the range of rechargeable battery powered vehicles. However, this is not at the moment the way in which electric vehicle development is moving. The trend among manufacturers is to develop vehicles in which the engine and motor are used in conjunction to optimise the vehicle fuel economy. Two examples are the Honda Insight and the Toyota Prius, which have really made an impact on the world of car design, and brought electric cars that people can easily use on to the market. These, and a steadily increasing number of alternatives from almost all the major motor manufacturers, can be purchased now at very reasonable prices. The Honda Insight, illustrated in Figure 8.14, is a hybrid vehicle combining a conventional gasoline-driven engine with an additional motor driven by a battery. The engine and motor can both be used to propel the vehicle. The Insight employs a system...

81 Introduction

To maximise the fuel efficiency of any vehicle the mass, aerodynamic drag and rolling resistance have to be minimised, while at the same time maximising engine motor and transmission efficiencies. It is particularly important to design battery electric vehicles with high efficiencies in order to reduce the mass of expensive batteries required.

212 In Conclusion

Although these are approximate figures they are comparative, and they do give a fairly clear picture as to the state of battery development for electric vehicles. Lead acid batteries are only really suited for short-range vehicles. They remain the cheapest form of battery per unit of energy stored and it is likely that they will continue to be widely used for these purposes. Very many useful electric vehicles can be made which do not need a long range. There are no batteries that currently show signs of enabling pure electric vehicles to compete in both versatility and long-range use with IC engine vehicles. To do this a totally different technology is needed, which leads us into the consideration of fuel cells in Chapters 4 and 5. However, before we consider such radical technology, we take a look at other ways of storing electrical energy, apart from batteries.

28 Battery Charging

One important issue relating to battery chargers is the provision of facilities for charging vehicles in public places such as car parks. Some cities in Europe, especially (for example) La Rochelle in France, and several in California in the USA, provide such units. A major problem is that of standardisation, making sure that all electric vehicles can safely connect to all such units. Recently the Californian Air Resources Board, which regulates However, the great majority of electric vehicles, such as bicycles, mobility aids, delivery vehicles and the like, will always use one charger, which will be designed specifically for the battery on that vehicle. On hybrid electric vehicles too, the charger is the alternator on the engine, and the charging will be controlled by the vehicle's energy management system. However, whatever charging method is used, with whatever type of battery, the importance of 'charge equalisation' in batteries must be understood. This is explained in the...

94Power Steering

Power steering is now standard on many cars, particularly heavier vehicles, which electric cars normally are. With internal combustion engine vehicles it is conventional to use a hydraulic system, the hydraulic pump being powered mechanically from the engine. With electric cars where there is an electrical power source it is easier and more efficient to use electrically powered power steering.

34 Flywheels

Despite the lack of success of the flywheel for vehicle energy storage and a certain amount of bad press, it would be wrong to write off the flywheel completely. Virtually all IC engines have small flywheels and these have not proved particularly problematic. The simplicity of a small flywheel to be used in an electric vehicle for use as a regenerative braking system should not be overlooked. Provided the flywheel is used well below its rupture point and is kept relatively small and well guarded, it may come to have a useful role in the future of electric vehicles, particularly in hybrids.

36 Supply Rails

Electrical supply rails date from the 19th century and are an old and well tested method of supplying electric vehicles. Originally they were used on railed vehicles and later on trolley buses. The advantage of supply rails is that an electrical vehicle can be used without the need for an onboard battery. This enables clean, non-polluting vehicles to be used that can have an almost infinite range. This is ideal for underground trains for example. Originally the London underground used steam trains The disadvantage of supply rails is that the vehicle has to follow a pre-determined route. Trolley buses are normally fitted with small batteries that allow them to be driven for a short range away from the supply. The latter is a valuable idea. For example, electric vehicles could run on roads or tracks using supply rails on specific routes and then run off the tracks using batteries or fuel cells when starting and completing a journey. This IPT system is also potentially applicable to...

The Condition of the

Although in the last decades the air quality in the U.S. improved and the newer standards (such as the Clean Air Act of 1990) became stricter, lately we have seen misguided attempts to reverse this progress. Regulations protecting wetlands, forbidding clear-cutting of forests, and mandating use of electric cars have all been relaxed or reversed. In the rest of the world, the overall trend is continued deterioration of air quality. In the U.S., part of the improvement in air quality is due not to pollution abatement but to the exporting of manufacturing industries part of the improvement is made possible by relatively low population density, not the result of conservation efforts.

03 Lean production enterprise structures and networking

Enterprise structures aim to exploit business opportunities in globally emerging products and markets to unite diverse skills and reapply them in long-term cooperative relationships to allocate leadership to the member best positioned to serve the activity involved regardless of the size of company to which he she belongs and finally to integrate the internal creation of products with the external consequences of the product. In EVs this would involve ensuring an adequate operational infrastructure be provided by an electricity generating company, in combination with local authorities. The products involved are those, such as the electric vehicle, that no one member company on its own could design, manufacture and market. Partners in an EV enterprise might also lead it into additional businesses such as power electronics, lift motors, low cost boat-hull structures and energy storage systems for power station load levelling, for example. Internally the use of combined resources in...

04 Electricdrive fundamentals

While battery-electric vehicles were almost as common as IC-engined ones, at the beginnings of the commercialization of the powered road vehicle, it was not until the interwar years that serious studies were taken into operating efficiency of such systems, as a precursor to their introduction in industrial trucks and special purpose vehicles such as milk floats. Figure 0.4 illustrates some of the fundamental EV traction considerations as the technology developed. For the Mercedes Electromobile of the early 1920s, for example, seen at (a), more sophisticated wheel drives were introduced, with motors formed in the wheels to eliminate transmission gear losses. An energy diagram for this drive is seen at (b). The basic definitions and relationships of electromagnetism are helpful in the appreciation of the efficiency factors involved.

125 Recent Evs And Hevs

The manufacturers of EVs in the 1990s realized that their significant research and development efforts on ZEV technologies were hindered by unsuitable battery technologies. A number of auto industries started developing hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) to overcome the battery and range problem of pure electric vehicles. The Japanese auto industries lead this trend with Toyota, Honda, and Nissan already marketing their Prius, Insight, and Tino model hybrids. The hybrid vehicles use an electric motor and an internal combustion engine and, thus, do not solve the pollution problem, although it does mitigate it. It is perceived by many that the hybrids, with their multiple propulsion units and control complexities, are not economically viable in the long run, although currently a number of commercial, prototype, and experimental hybrid vehicle models are available from almost all of the major automotive industries around the world. Toyota, Honda, and Nissan are marketing the hybrid vehicles...

251 Forcevelocity Characteristics

Having identified the fundamental forces and the associated dynamics for electric and hybrid electric vehicles, let us now attempt to relate these equations to vehicle design specifications and requirements. For an efficient design of the propulsion unit, the designer must know the force required to accelerate the vehicle to a cruising speed within a certain time and then to propel the vehicle forward at the rated steady state cruising speed and at the maximum speed on a specified slope. Useful design information is contained in the vehicle speed versus time and the steady state tractive force versus constant velocity

238 Energy Policy

It provided energy efficiency goals and standards, promoted alternative fuels, prescribed new R & D on electric vehicles, restructured the production of electricity, addressed radioactive waste disposal, established a uranium enrichment corporation, and simplified nuclear plant licensing. In essence, the law affirms the nation's commitment to preserve and extend the nuclear option as part of a broad energy mix. From the more than 350 pages of the Act, we can highlight the features that are related primarily to nuclear energy, with the understanding that some of the requirements of the law would inevitably be modified by subsequent congressional action. Electric cars. The expansion of usage of electric vehicles, those operating on motors with current supplied by batteries, is mandated by a 10-year commercial demonstration program. DOE is to work with manufacturers and the electric utility industry to develop practical inexpensive vehicles and the infrastructure...

464 Ba Ttery Electricshybrids In The Interim

A better alternative to nickel technology is aluminium. This is because the nickel-metal hydride battery, to give 80 kWh needed for a 3-400 mile range (on a PNVG car), would weigh 850 kg and cost 25 000, at year 2000 prices from Ovonic. The same 80 kWh can be obtained at a weight of 250 kg with aluminium, and at a cost of just 5000 and of course the material from which it is made is the most abundant on earth, next to hydrogen. The electric car is not a failure from a performance point of view but merely waiting for its time to come when high performance batteries can be produced economically. Energy density is not the problem with aluminium, rather it is the corrosion problem which causes aluminium batteries to degrade rapidly because of the formation of aluminium hydroxide jelly. However, two years ago scientists in Finland put forward a raft of patents which overcame some of the problems these were revealed at the 2000 ISATA conference. For the PNVG programme, Dr Alan Rudd built an...

Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Modeling

The results of the reformer analysis were integrated with a fuel cell electric vehicle model in order to assess the effect of reformer efficiency, reformer weight, and ref rmate quality upon the fuel economy of the vehicle. The model, recently developed by Steinbugler (13), determines the power required for a given vehicle to cover an arbitrary driving cycle. It determines the size and weight of the fuel cell, fuel storage, and peaking device (if included) necessary to achieve a given performance specification. For this preliminary analysis, we have chosen parameters corresponding to a midsize vehicle having 1) a traditional steel chassis (Ford Taurus 1050 kg glider weight), or 2) a lightweight body (aluminum-intensive Sable 750 kg glider weight). The weight of two passengers (136 kg) was also included. A fairly high power-to-weight ratio (-0.06 kW kg) was required to obtain performance comparable to contemporary automobiles, in particular the ability to accelerate 3 mph per second at...

563 Uk Eva Practice For

In its manual of good practice for battery electric vehicles the Electric Vehicle Association lays down some useful ground rules for conceptual design of road-going electric trucks. Exploiting the obvious benefits of EV technology is the first consideration. Thus an ultra-low floor walk-through cab is a real possibility when batteries and motors can be mounted remotely. Lack of fuelling requirement, ease of start-up and getaway - also driving simplicity of two-pedal control without gearshifting - all these factors lend themselves to operations, such as busy city-centre deliveries where a substantial part of the driver's time is spent in off-loading and order-taking. Any aspect of vehicle design which minimizes the driving task thus maximizes his or her other workload duties. Successful builders of electric trucks are thus, say the EVA, specialists in assembling bought-in systems and components. Required expertise is in tailoring a motor battery speed-controller package to a given...

The Fast Charger Configuration

102 ELECTRIC VEHICLE BATTERY FAST CHARGING Figure 5-3 Constant voltage charging profile. charging a compact electric car in about 6 to 10 minutes, a midsize electric vehicle (EV) in about 25 to 30 minutes provided that the battery quality allows charge acceptance at such rates.

4Alternative Energy Sources

The possible alternatives to batteries as portable energy sources that are being investigated today for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and other applications are fuel cells and flywheels. Ultracapacitor technology has advanced tremendously in recent years, although it is unlikely to achieve specific energy levels high enough to serve as the sole energy source of a vehicle. However, ultracapacitors in conjunction with a battery or fuel cell have the possibility of being excellent portable energy sources with sufficient specific energy and specific power for the next generation of vehicles. These three alternative energy sources are covered in this chapter.

813 Rolling resistance

Some researchers suggest that rolling resistance data for very small tyres, as may be used in lightweight urban electric cars, is not readily available from manufacturers. Work done by Margetts14 using a towed vehicle fitted with test tyres, and load-cell towbar, has shown results as at (a) in Fig. 8.25 for such tyres. The results show a different relationship to that obtained by the classic formula due to Hoerner (dotted curve) for conventional-sized tyres. Michelin's lower rolling-resistance 'Energy' tyres are said to compensate for the loss of wet-grip in moving to lower hysteresis tread compounds, for reducing drag, by new rubber formulations, carcass construction and tread patterns. By obtaining low hysteresis values at low frequency vibration, and the converse at high frequencies, the company have effectively reduced rolling resistance by 20 over conventional radial-ply construction, (b). Recently the company extended this technology to launch tyres particularly designed for...

89 Lightweight vehicle suspension

The ultra-lightweight vehicle presents a special challenge to suspension engineers, for in a 5-seater car the weight of four passengers and luggage at typically 700 lbs is significant compared with the maximum 1120 lb tare weight arbitrarily targeted for a lightweight electric car, with batteries on board. Substantial change therefore occurs in the suspended mass for laden and unladen vehicles. It is, however, an advantage of the near-symmetrical punt-type structure, proposed for the multipurpose electric vehicle in other chapters, and the large central battery tray gives the vehicle an inherently central centre gravity with little change in its position as passengers embark disembark to from the centrally disposed passenger compartment above that for the batteries. Suspension thus has to tolerate large changes in suspended mass though individual wheel units should be reasonably evenly weighted down.

366ironless Pm Synchronous Motor

This machine has been developed by UNIQ (USA) for hub mounted motors for use in electric vehicles. It consists of a machine with both an internal and external rotor which are mechanically linked and a thin stator winding which is usually fabricated using printed circuit techniques. The result is a lightweight machine with a very high power density and low winding inductance since there is no stator iron. Performance is largely determined by the quality of permanent magnet used. The d-axis reluctance is high due to the double air gap so that the currents needed for vector control can be large compared with a conventional PM machine. Such machines have been built up to 40 kW rating at 7500 rpm with epicyclic speed reducers that are wheel-mounted.

87Case study of FEA for EVs and structural assemblies

Daewoo's DEV3 electric vehicle has used structural analysis techniques applied by the Institute for Advanced Engineering in the design of its space frame7. The frame comprises welded extruded aluminium alloy members of identical cross-section and the design was optimized by setting up design variables for each member in differential element thicknesses. The structure incorporates a large battery tray over the floor area, the design of which was also optimized such that a lightweight EV build was possible even with fitted batteries. Its kerb weight of 1187 kg compares with 2100 for the pioneering Lucas Hybrid EV, for example while battery weight for the DEV3's Ni-MH units was 373 kg against 550 kg for the Lucas lead-acid units.

3Energy Source Battery

A basic requirement for electric vehicles (EVs) is a portable source of electrical energy, which is converted to mechanical energy in the electric motor for vehicle propulsion. Electrical energy is typically obtained through conversion of chemical energy stored in devices such as batteries and fuel cells. A flywheel is an alternative portable source in which energy is stored in mechanical form to be converted into electrical energy on demand for vehicle propulsion. The portable electrical energy source presents the biggest obstacle in commercialization of EVs. A near-term solution for minimizing the environmental pollution problem due to the absence of a suitable, high-energy-density energy source for EVs is perceived in the hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) that combine propulsion efforts from gasoline engines and el ectri c motors.

103governmental Requirements

As can be seen, incidental emitters on vehicles are generally exempt from Part 15. This means devices such as engine controllers and portions of other systems. The various intentional emitters, such as low power transmitter are subject to Part 15, and are called non-exempt devices. A unique requirement for electric vehicles is Part 18, since the system becomes part of the power grid when it is connected to a charging source.

35 Brushless PM motor design and FE analysis of a 150 kW machine

High speed permanent magnet (PM) machines with rotor speed in the range from 5000 to 80 000 rpm have been developed3, applications of which include a gas turbine generator with possible application in hybrid electric vehicles. The motor considered below runs at infinitely variable speeds up to 2 kHz at full power and has been designed for different requirements at an output power of150 kW. Machine parameters have been calculated from software package 141 developed at Nelco Systems Ltd.

473alternative Auxiliary Power

Photocells are also useful on battery-electric vehicles to ensure that the battery never gets fully discharged (particularly important with lead-acid types). They are valuable sources of auxiliary power for cooling purposes, either lowering interior temperatures on cars parked in the sun or providing refrigeration power to keep gaseous fuels in liquid form. The transformation in usage that could follow an increase in conversion efficiency may be realizable before long if the reported

632 Hybrid Power Pack A Better Solution

In the long term we may use electric vehicles using flywheel storage or fuel cells. Until these systems are available the best answer is to use a hybrid drive line consisting of a small battery, a 45 kW electric drive, and a 22.5 kW engine. This solution would increase the vehicle weight from

611 The Hybrid Vehicle

This solution is considered by coauthor Ron Hodkinson to be a short-term remedy to the pollution problem. It has two forms, parallel and series hybrid which he illustrates in Fig. 6.1. Conventionally, parallel hybrids are used in lower power electric vehicles where both drives can be operated in parallel to enhance high power performance. Series hybrids are used in high power systems. Typically, a gas turbine drives a turbo-alternator to feed electricity into the electric drive. It is this

810 Handling and steering

One of the important attributes for the electric vehicle, if it is to attract drivers from conventional petrol driven vehicles, is responsive handling. While tyres on EVs are required to have minimum rolling resistance there is likely to be some compromise in both ride rate and cornering characteristic, so attention to handling response in design is important. We have considered how drive systems, and the associated electrical equipment need to be arranged in the vehicle so as to balance front

2117 The Merritt engine

A turbocharged Merritt engine, running lean, promises to keep well below the proposed emissions limits for CO2, and indeed lower even than those associated with a battery electric vehicle charged with electricity from a conventional power station. Furthermore, its fuel economy, will be significantly better than that of the turbocharged diesel engine and, moreover, with almost no particulates in the exhaust.

5DC and AC Electric Machines

In electric vehicles (EVs), the electric motor is the sole propulsion unit, while in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), the electric motor and the internal combustion (IC) engine together in a series or parallel combination provide the propulsion power. In an EV or an HEV, the electric traction motor converts electrical energy from the energy storage unit to mechanical energy that drives the wheels of the vehicle. The major advantages of an electric motor over an IC engine are that the motor provides full torque at low speeds and the instantaneous power rating can be two or three times the rated power of the motor. These characteristics give the vehicle excellent acceleration with a nominally rated motor.

23 Status of the aluminium battery

Market requirements fall into two distinct categories (a) small peak power batteries of 500 Wh (2 kWh for hybrids) and (b) 30-100 kWh for pure electric vehicles. Each of the cell types has its own distinctive attributes but none has so far succeeded in making the breakthrough required for mass market EV implementation. The fundamental problem is one of weight. At the factory gate, vehicle cost is almost proportional to mass, as is vehicle accelerative and gradient performance. Consequently it will take at least 300 Wh kg and 600 W kg to achieve the performance weight ratio for long range electrics we really desire. This would make one type of hybrid particularly attractive - the small fuel cell running continuously together with a large battery.

53 Power Electronics and Controls

Finally, a PEC is required to convert electricity into a form consumable by the load. Once again, the details of this converter are dependent on the specifics of the application. For example, in the case of an electric utility (or stand-alone AC load), the power electronics would take the form of a DC-to-AC inverter. In the case of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), the power electronics would take the form of a DC-to-DC converter. Other power electronic elements are not shown in this simple diagram but are essential for realization of a practical DG power system. For example, motor controllers and power supplies are commonly employed in ancillary systems.

74 Materials for specialist EV structures

Polyester and epoxy resins have a proven record for the lower volume specialist vehicle categories. The future electric vehicle market might tend on the one hand towards localized body manufacture with considerable manual labour glass-reinforced polyester (GRP) content in developing countries and in the richer countries to the construction of ultra-lightweight bodies using techniques thus far only affordable to race-car construction, Fig. 7.6. Hand lay-up is an important factor for both of these sectors. There is also a medium volume sector in specialist vehicles which has warmed towards resin pre-impregnated sheet moulding compounds which might well be adopted for electrical commercial and passenger service vehicles as the market progresses.

Onb O Ard Fuel Reformers For Fuel Cell Vehicles Equilibrium Kinetic And System Modeling

On-board reforming of liquid fuels to hydrogen for use in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) has been the subject of numerous investigations (1-10). In many respects, liquid fuels represent a more attractive method of carrying hydrogen than compressed hydrogen itself, promising greater vehicle range, shorter refilling times, increased safety, and perhaps most importantly, utilization of the current fuel distribution infrastructure. The drawbacks of on-board reformers include their inherent complexity for example a POX reactor includes a fuel vaporizer, a reformer, water-gas shift reactors, a preferential oxidation (PROX) unit for CO cleanup, heat exchangers for thermal integration, sensors and controls, etc. , weight, and expense relative to compressed H2, as well as degraded fuel cell performance due to the presence of inert gases and impurities in the reformate.

Cotan 8 cotan 8 TW F FbW and F FaW

A particular aspect of urban electric vehicles is relatively short wheelbase and narrow track relative to their overall height. The experience of the first-production Mercedes-Benz A-class, which came to grief in the 'moose-test' applied on imports to the Scandiniavian market, is sufficient warning to designers to provide tolerance of severe chicane manoeuvres where buildup in lateral body oscillation can lead to rollover. In the case of the A-class the remedy was slightly lowered chassis, increase in anti-roll torque, extension of rear track, revised damper tyre characteristics and redesign of the handling response to induce greater understeer. The company's electronic suspension control system was also extended to cover all models in the range.

88Running gear design for optimum performance and light weight

As discussed in the Introduction, an electric vehicle should not be designed by a stylist and then engineered by an automotive technologist, in conventional fashion, but approached at the concept stage by an 'integrated' designer engineer who is able to trade off the aesthetic and performance functions as he or she proceeds. A gravimetric analysis is important even at the concept stage to ensure that weight reduction, Fig. 8.15, is kept in focus throughout the design development life of the vehicle and that the effect of weight distribution on overall functional performance is continually checked. Accurate prediction of weights for each element of the vehicle structure, powertrain and running units (a) is aided by graphical representation (b). For this purpose, alignment charts can provide a valuable guide to the use of different materials in sheet and rail form. This will lead to an early appreciation, for example, of front-to-rear weight distribution upon which ride and handling...

54 EV development history

According to pioneer UK EV developer and producer Geoffrey Harding5, the Lucas programme was a major event in the renaissance of the electric vehicle. He set up a new Lucas Industries facility to develop battery EVs in 1974 because, as a major transport operator, he had asked Lucas to join him in an approach to a UK government department for some financial assistance to build a battery electric bus which would operate on a route between railway stations in Manchester. The reasons for his interest in this project were twofold. First, there was a major problem with the reliability of many of the diesel buses at that time and he wanted to find out whether electric buses would live up to the attributes of good reliability and minimal maintenance that had been afforded to EVs for many years. Second, a world shortage of oil at that time was causing an apparent continuous and alarming increase in the price.

34 Brushless motor design for a medium car

There is now little doubt that brushless DC machines offer the best overall performance when used in vector control mode, with high voltage windings, Fig. 3.6. The reason is that the brushless DC motor offers the lowest winding current for the overall envelope of operation. An electric vehicle has to provide a non-linear torque speed curve with constant power operation from base speed to maximum speed. In a brushless DC motor, the motor voltage may be held constant over this range using vector control. In an induction motor, the motor voltage must rise over the constant power speed range. If V and I are the voltage and current at maximum speed and power the values at base speed are V x (Base Speed Max Speed)1 2, I x (Max Speed Base Speed)1 2. If maximum speed base speed 3.5 times, the current at base speed is 1.87I. Consequently the induction motor inverter requires 1.87 times the current capacity of the brushless DC motor inverter.

622justifying Hybrid Drive

Studies carried out at the General Research Corporation in California, where legislation on zero emission vehicles is hotly contested, have shown that the 160 km range electric car could electrify some 80 of urban travel based on the average range requirements of city households, (a). It is unlikely, however, that a driver would take trips such that the full range of electric cars could be totally used before switching to the IC engine car for the remainder of the day's travel. This does not arise with a hybrid car whose entire electric range could be utilized before switching and it has been estimated that with similar electric range such a vehicle would cover 96 of urban travel requirements. In two or more car households, the second (and more) car could meet 100 of urban demand, if of the hybrid drive type.

83 Punttype structures

At (a) is such a structure designed by a former chief chassis engineer for Bristol Cars who had been trained in the associated British Aerospace company. The design was produced for a firm of consultants serving the volume-production automotive industry for whom he worked in a similar capacity. This design would be much more successfully produced using current techniques for laser-welding plane blanks as with spot welding equipment available at the time it was difficult to fabricate stabilizing diaphragms at intervals along the box tubes and to insert kink-strut diaphragms at the corner joints, and spot-welding flanges compromised low mass. Furthermore, the industry was not prepared to compromise on styling and interior layout for improved structural design, to the extent that is now required for the realization of ultra-light structures suitable for electric cars. Though the concept did not reach series production at the time embodiments can be seen in such designs as the hydro...

8102 Electric Steering

Power steering mechanisms using electromagnetic actuation are now being introduced on petrol-driven cars and, of course, are ideally suited to the electric car. Because conventional hydraulic power-assisted steering reduces vehicle efficiency, by drawing power from the engine continuously, energy is wasted by driving the hydraulic pump even when assistance is not required, such as at high cruising speeds on motorways. A typical torque speed curve for a conventional car hydraulic steer-assist pump shows that pressure in the idle hydraulic system is normally around 2 bar and to retain this back-pressure at a road speed of 70 mph (typically 3500 rpm engine speed) a 1.5 Nm torque is required, which can correspond to several hundred watts. In electrohydraulic systems (EHPAS) the engine-driven pump is replaced by an electric one. In the Adwest10 system, an open-centred valve is used so that equal pressure exists either side of the rack-ram, in the straight-ahead (on-centre) position. Oil...

High Power Density Fuel Cell Stack Development For Automotive Applications

The first task was the integration of the existing Mk 5 technology into a commercially available vehicle, which was given the name NECAR, for New Electric Car. The purpose was to provide a working platform to collect experience in the operation of a motive fuel cell power plant, and learn about the requirements for technology advancement. It also provided assurance that the technology is viable for the application, and that with development, can meet the requirements of the commercial automotive market.

75 Ultralightweight construction case study

The General Motors Ultralite concept car is an encapsulation of advanced carbon-fibre reinforced epoxy resin structure, combined with aerodynamic optimization, that would suit a high-performance electric car. An EC energy saving study6 put forward the forecast of local manufacturing units that would make the hand-building of such vehicles a reality. The study suggests that despite some notable lightweighting initiatives, there is little sign yet of affordable super-light production cars. While vehicle makers continue to spend fortunes on refinement of vehicles that will need revolutionary redesign if they are to meet supercar standards, it is suggested that the move is akin to refining the typewriter after the desktop computer had been invented. The real fuel economy gains are to come from extensive weight and aero-drag reductions rather than further engine development on systems that might soon succumb to hybrid drives. There is also substantial potential in reducing tyre rolling...

762 Light Alloys For Improving Specific Rigidity

The non-ferrous light alloys such as those of aluminium and magnesium can, of course, produce panels which are inherently less prone to buckling without the same need for stabilizing reinforcement required of steel panels, Fig. 7.13. Comparatively thicker skinned structures are possible and high specific rigidities are obtainable in boxed punt structures such as the hydro aluminium one, (a), used on the BMW E1 experimental electric car. This is likely to be a more rewarding approach than the direct substitution of aluminium alloy for steel illustrated in Fig. 0.1 in the Introduction. The need is again for designing to obtain full advantage from the material.