Nonpetroleum Liquid Fuels

Tar Sands Canadian tar sands are strip-mined and extracted with hot water to recover heavy oil (bitumen). The oil is processed into naphtha, kerosene, and gasoline fractions (which are hydrotreated), in addition to gas (which is recovered). Tar sands are being developed in Utah also.

Oil Shale Oil shale is nonporous rock containing organic kero-gen. Raw shale oil is extracted from mined rock by pyrolysis in a surface retort, or in situ by steam injection after breaking up the rock with explosives. Pyrolysis cracks the kerogen, yielding raw shale oil high in nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. Shale oil has been hydrotreated and refined in demonstration tests into relatively conventional fuels. Refining in petroleum facilities is possible, and blending with petroleum is most likely.

Coal-Derived Fuels Liquid fuels derived from coal range from highly aromatic coal tars to liquids resembling petroleum. Raw liquids from different hydrogenation processes show variations that reflect the degree of hydrogenation achieved. Also, the raw liquids can be further hydrogenated to refined products. Properties and cost depend on the degree of hydrogenation and the boiling range of the fraction selected. A proper balance between fuel upgrading and equipment modification is essential for the most economical use of coal liquids in boilers, industrial furnaces, diesels, and stationary gas turbines.

Coal-tar fuels are high-boiling fractions of crude tar from pyrolysis in coke ovens and coal retorts. Grades range from free-flowing liquids to pulverizable pitch. Low in sulfur and ash, they contain hydrocarbons, phenols, and heterocyclic nitrogen and oxygen compounds. Being more aromatic than petroleum fuels, they burn with a more luminous flame. From 288 to 477 K (60 to 400°F) properties include:

Heat capacity 1.47-1.67 kJ/(kg-K) (0.35-0.40 Btu/[lb°F])

Thermal conductivity 0.14-0.15 W/(m-K) (0.080-0.085 Btu/[h-ft-°F])

Heat of vaporization 349 kJ/kg (150 Btu/lb)

Heat of fusion Nil

Table 27-7 shows representative data for liquid fuels from tar sands, oil shale, and coal.

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