Process Heating Equipment

Many major energy-intensive industries depend on direct-fired or indirect-fired equipment for drying, heating, calcining, melting, or chemical processing. This subsection discusses both direct- and indirect-fired equipment, with the greater emphasis on indirect firing for the process industries. Direct-Fired Equipment Direct-fired combustion equipment transfers heat by bringing the flame and or the products of combustion into direct contact with the process stream. Common examples are rotary...

And Utilization

Podolski, Ph.D., Chemical Engineer, Electrochemical Technology Program, Argonne National Laboratory Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers. (Section Editor) Shelby A. Miller, Ph.D., P.E., Resident Retired Senior Engineer, Argonne National Laboratory Member, American Association for the Advancement of Science (Fellow), American Chemical Society, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Fellow), American Institute of Chemists (Fellow), Filtration Society, New York Academy of...

Combustion Of Gaseous Fuels

3239 Inspirator Burner North American

Combustion of gas takes place in two ways, depending upon when gas and air are mixed. When gas and air are mixed before ignition, as in a Bunsen burner, burning proceeds by hydroxylation. The hydrocarbons and oxygen form hydroxylated compounds that become aldehydes the addition of heat and additional oxygen breaks down the aldehydes to H2, CO, CO2, and H2O. Inasmuch as carbon is converted to aldehydes in the initial stages of mixing, no soot can be developed even if the flame is quenched....

Combustion Of Liquid Fuels

Oil is typically burned as a suspension of droplets generated by atomizing the fuel. As the droplets pass from the atomizer into the flame zone, they are heated both by radiation from the flame and by convection from the hot gases that surround them, and the lighter fuel components vaporize. The vapors mix with surrounding air and ignite. Depending on the fuel type, the fuel droplet may be completely vaporized or it may be partially vaporized, leaving a residual char or coke particle. Fuel oils...

Indirect Coal Liquefaction

General References Dry, The Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Catalysis Science and Technology, vol. 1, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1981. Anderson, The Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Academic Press, New York, 1984. Sheldon, Chemicals from Synthesis Gas, D. Reidel Publishing Co., Dordrecht, Netherlands, 1983. Rao, Stiegel, Cinquegrane, and Srivastava, Iron-based Catalyst for Slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch Process Technology Review, Fuel Processing Technology 30 83-151, 1992. Background Indirect coal...

Combustion Background

Theoretical Oxygen and Air for Combustion The amount of oxidant (oxygen or air) just sufficient to burn the carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur in a fuel to carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sulfur dioxide is the theoretical or stoichiometric oxygen or air requirement. The chemical equation for complete combustion of a fuel is x, y, z, and w being the number of atoms of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, respectively, in the fuel. For example, 1 mol of methane (CH4) requires 2 mol of oxygen for...

Coal Gasification

General References Fuel Gasification Symp., 152d American Chemical Society Mtg., Sept. 1966. Chemistry of Coal Utilization, suppl. vol., Lowry (ed.), Wiley, New York, 1963 and 2d suppl. vol., Elliot (ed.), 1981. Coal Gasification Guidebook Status, Applications, and Technologies, Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI TR-102034, Palo Alto, Calif., 1993. Notestein, Commercial Gasifier for IGCC Applications Study Report, U.S. Dept. of Energy, DOE METC-91 6118, Morgantown Energy Technology Center,...

Liquid Fuels

Agm Standard Arm

Liquid Petroleum Fuels The principal liquid fuels are made by fractional distillation of crude petroleum a mixture of hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives ranging from methane to heavy bitumen . As many as one-quarter to one-half of the molecules in crude may contain sulfur atoms, and some contain nitrogen, oxygen, vanadium, nickel, or arsenic. Desulfurization, hydrogenation, cracking to lower molecular weight , and other refining processes may be performed on selected fractions before they...

Synthol Fischer-tropsch Capital Cost Million

Where Wn weight fraction of products with carbon number n, and a chain growth probability, i.e., the probability that a carbon chain on the catalyst surface will grow by adding another carbon atom rather than terminating. In general, a is dependent on temperature, pressure, and catalyst composition but independent of chain length. As a increases, the average carbon number of the product also increases. When a equals 0, only methane is formed. As a approaches 1, the product becomes predominantly...

Utility Steam Generators

Afbc Boiler Flow Diagram

Steam-Generator Circulation System Circulation systems for utility application are generally classified as natural circulation and forced or pump-assisted circulation in drum-type boilers, and as once-through flow in subcritical- and supercritical-pressure boilers. The FIG. 27-37 Heat absorption distribution for various types of boilers. Adapted from Singer, Combustion Fossil Power, 4th ed., Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, Conn., 1991. FIG. 27-37 Heat absorption distribution for various...