How to Recondition a Battery

EZ Battery Reconditioning Method

This eBook guide gives you all the information that you need to know to never have to buy batteries again. You will learn what it takes to recondition your batteries that you already have, with things that already have at your house or can easily get. You can save money by never having to buy batteries again But it gets better! You can make huge profits off of selling the batteries that you reconditioned at premium prices. You don't have to have any technical know-how to learn how to do this All it takes is the information in this book! No matter what kind of batteries they are Even if they are car batteries, normal AA batteries, or forklift batteries, you can recondition them like new and sell them at full price or reuse them for yourself! Read more here...

EZ Battery Reconditioning Method Overview


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1 Electric Vehicle Batteries

However, the weight of these vehicles, long recharging time, and poor durability of electric barriers reduced the ability of electric cars to gain a long-term market presence. One pound of gasoline contained a chemical energy equivalent of 100 pounds of Pb-acid batteries. Refueling the car with gasoline required only minutes, supplies of gasoline seemed to be limitless, and the long distance delivery of goods and passengers was relatively cheap and easy. This led to the virtual disappearance of electric cars by 1920.

Testing Electric Vehicle Batteries

The battery is a key element in the acceptance of the EVs. In order to test and develop the battery pack, it is important to determine the effect of battery cycle life versus the peak battery power and battery rest periods, and to determine the impact of the charge method on the battery cycle life. From the battery pack management standpoint, it is important to study the thermal management characteristics and the utilization of active material in the batteries. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) has defined procedures for battery pack testing. These test procedures include battery pack life-cycle testing, destructive safety and or special testing, destructive abuse testing, and posttest analysis.

6 Electric Vehicle Battery Discharging

Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) has prepared battery test information that provides test guidelines for full-voltage battery packs, battery modules, and battery cells. The test procedures provide procedures and parameter values to be used by all in evaluating the batteries, including the battery developers and other test facilities. Commencing with a fully charged battery, the battery is discharged by applying the scaled DST power profile. The 360-second discharge test is repeated with minimal time delay (rest period) between the discharge profiles until the end-of-discharge point specified in the test plan or the battery voltage limit, whichever occurs first, is reached. The end-of-discharge point is based on the net battery capacity removed (total Ahr-regeneration Ahr). In addition, the DST test provides insight into the VRLA battery's changing internal resistance simulating the dynamic driving conditions of the electric vehicle (EV). In addition, the internal...

3 Electric Vehicle Battery Capacity

The valve regulated lead acid-battery (VRLA) is a maintenance-free lead acid battery operating on the principle known as sealed, recombination, wherein all the electrolyte is stored in absorptive glass mats (AGM) separators. The battery must remain sealed for its entire operating life and, to achieve maximum cycle life, must be properly recharged to prevent any excessive overcharge. Excessive overcharge results in excessive gas pressure build-up inside the battery, which is relieved by the opening of the pressure relief valve (typically set at 1.5 psi 0.5 psi). Everytime the valve opens, water vapor is lost, which in turn reduces battery life. The USABC has outlined the performance requirements for VRLA batteries for the near term and the next few years, especially for use in electric vehicle applications. These requirements are summarized in Table 3-1, which shows that the near term VRLA battery provides up to 95Whr L of energy, while the requirements are to increase the energy...

Temperature Compensation During Battery Charging

The on-charge voltage limits must be compensated for temperature to account for the variation of the useful battery capacity with temperature. Table 4-1 summarizes the compensated lower and the upper Observation 2 Batteries equalize to within one cycle even with an unbalanced pack with improved battery capacity when an equalizing charge is applied to finish the charging for each individual battery. The charge is terminated when the first battery in the series string achieves a temperature compensated clamp voltage of 14.5 V. Observation 3 Over gassing of the highest state of charge battery occurs when the battery pack is charged such that the last battery reaches a temperature compensated clamp voltage of 14.5 V but without an upper clamp of 15.5 V. Observation 4 Battery equalization occurs before the equalization of the battery pack within three to four charge cycles with moderate gassing on some batteries. The battery pack is being charged using the last temperature compensated...

Thermal Management of the Electric Vehicle Battery

The battery life and performance both are strongly affected by the operating temperature and the uniformity of the battery pack temperature. On the other hand, these temperatures can be modified by the battery thermal management system. External cooling is less effective in the thermal management of the battery pack.

Battery Capacity Recovery

The cycle life of VRLA battery is directly dependent on the depth of discharge (DOD). In addition, the rate of charge of the VRLA also influences the battery life. Discharge the battery pack at the specified rate to specified depth of discharge If a balanced battery pack is maintained at low DOD, the battery cycle life improves to approximately 4,000 cycles. This condition can seldom be maintained for an EV owing to city driving patterns.

3710 Control Circuit In Battery Charging Mode

The control circuit for battery charging is shown in Fig. 3.20. When the battery is below 2.1 V per cell and 40 C it is charged at the maximum current obtainable from the supply. Above 2.1 V cell the battery is operated at reduced charging up to 2.35 V per cell, compensated at -4 mV C for battery temperature. This data assumes lead-acid cells. Fig. 3.20 Block diagram of battery charging controller. Fig. 3.20 Block diagram of battery charging controller.

Safety Requirements For Electric Vehicle Batteries

The EVs were subjected to crash tests with Pb-acid batteries in two different configurations. The crash test was conducted at approximately 45 to 50mph into a fixed barrier. The results of the tests demonstrated significant damage to the front of the battery pack with large quantity of electrolyte spillage. In one of the two vehicles the electrolyte spilled exceeded 12ltrs. In addition, several high voltage arcs were also observed under the hood of the EV during the crash. Is there an optimal battery pack configuration based on the vehicle weight Is there a location of the battery pack that will minimize their damage in a crash or rollover What are the requirements that should be placed on battery pack design, construction, or testing Should battery packs be dualwalled compartments Good Vehicle Performance Fuel cell vehicle performance is equal to that of the conventional IC engine. In contrast to the battery-powered electric vehicle (EV), with limited range and relatively long...

3522 Battery Pack Design

Batteries can be configured in series or in parallel configuration or in a combination thereof. Design depends on output voltage and discharge requirements. The series connection yields the required voltage, while the parallel connection delivers the desired capacity for the battery pack for minimum run time before recharging. The battery pack also includes electronics, which are typically located outside the battery pack. The electronic circuit of a multilevel battery pack controls charging and ensures reliability and protection against overcharge, over discharge, short circuiting, and thermal abuse.

Battery Pack Safetyelectrolyte Spillage And Electric Shock

Neighboring vehicles, bystanders, and emergency and clean-up personnel. Some of the important issues that must be addressed in understanding what types of traction batteries are expected to be in production use over the next 5 to 10 years, including their form (liquid or gel type electrolyte), chemical properties of the traction batteries, and associated battery pack temperatures of the various electrolyte solutions are Where are the battery packs located in the EV Determine what locations of the traction battery pack minimize the battery electrolyte spillage. Determine if the traction battery pack should use a dual-walled design such that in the event of a rollover, damage of the outer wall of the battery pack will not result in electrolyte spillage. Determine if there should be sufficient labeling inside the battery pack the EV to better assist emergency rescue teams at the scene of the EV crash.

Battery Pack Corrective Actions Connection Resistance

The intercell and terminal connection resistance is set as a baseline during the installation of the traction battery pack. This recording process ensures that an increase in the resistance values can be detected at an early stage, especially those caused by loose connections and corrosion.

Rapid Nickelcadmium Battery Charger

The most common method to charge Ni-Cd batteries is by means of a constant-current source at the rate of 0.1C (trickle charge), where the charging rate is commonly expressed as a multiple of the rated capacity of the battery (Linden, 1995) for example, for a battery with C 500 mAh, 0.1C corresponds to a charging current of 50 mA. At this rate, the battery takes between 12 and 16 hours to charge, and can withstand overcharg- Table 1. Input and output variables for rapid Ni-Cd battery charger, along with their universes of discourse Table 1. Input and output variables for rapid Ni-Cd battery charger, along with their universes of discourse ing without harm. Some chargers have the capability of charging batteries in about 5 hours using higher charging currents. However, with high charging rates (C 3 or higher), care must be taken to avoid overcharging, as it may result in excessive rise in temperature, which can harm the batteries (Buchmann, 1997). The main objective for the development...

23 Lead Acid Batteries

2.3.1 Lead acid battery basics The best known and most widely used battery for electric vehicles is the lead acid battery. Lead acid batteries are widely used in IC engine vehicles and as such are well known. However for electric vehicles, more robust lead acid batteries that withstand deep cycling and use a gel rather than a liquid electrolyte are used. These batteries are more expensive to produce. The lead acid battery is the most commonly used rechargeable battery in anything but the smallest of systems. The main reasons for this are that the main constituents (lead, sulphuric acid, a plastic container) are not expensive, that it performs reliably, and that it has a comparatively high voltage of about 2 V per cell. The overall characteristics of the battery are given in Table 2.1. One of the most notable features of the lead acid battery is its extremely low internal resistance (see Section 2.2.1 and Figure 2.1). This means that the fall in voltage as current is drawn is...

112Rechargeable Battery Vehicles

Rechargeable battery vehicles can also be divided into several different categories. For example, there are electric bicycles, secondly there are the low speed vehicles (LSVs) which form a class of vehicle in the USA and Canada, with maximum speeds of 40 kph (25 mph), and thirdly conventional road vehicles using rechargeable batteries. In addition there are special purpose delivery vehicles and vehicles such as fork lift trucks. There are also the small four-wheeled carriages used by the infirm which can be ridden on the pavement, and are narrow enough to fit through normal front doors. Other vehicles, such as powered wheel chairs, could also be mentioned. Gears (for pedalling) Battery charge time Mode Charger 11.2.4 Battery powered cars and vans There is a range of vehicles, vans, cars and buses that have been used in recent years. Most have ranges under 100 km, and the best possible range of a rechargeable battery vehicle such as the GM EV1 is 200 km. While this market will no doubt...

8 Testing And Computerbased Modeling Of Electric Vehicle Batteries

As the electric vehicle (EV) development continues, it is important to simulate and validate the development of advanced batteries for electric and hybrid-EV applications. From an end-to-end system perspective, it is important to validate the performance of the batteries by defining the performance envelope of the battery pack. This includes subjecting the traction battery pack to in-vehicle testing for electric and hybrid-EV applications. Integrated with the computer-based simulation, the performance analysis provides a baseline for the battery pack in real-world driving conditions. The integrated testing includes validation of the EV, Pb-acid batteries, NiMH batteries. The tests include a durability course test, impact The VRLA 85 Ahr battery undergoing a complex DST cycling has to terminate the test at the 80 depth of discharge (DOD) in about 76 minutes to avoid battery overdischarge and permanent damage. The virtual simulation can continue beyond the 80 DOD value until the battery...

Coldweather Impact On Electric Vehicle Battery Discharge

As seen with temperature characteristics of the traction battery, low temperature limits the battery discharge and useful available capacity. For commercial viability and customer acceptance, EVs need to operate reliably over a wide climatic range. The cold weather deterioration of range is well known, however, it is important to identify and quantify the causes of battery pack degradation. Once the solutions have been identified, it is important to pursue the solutions to eliminate the causes. The EV performance under cold temperature conditions is analyzed by installing instrumentation on the vehicle to measure the electrical energy entering and leaving the battery pack. Energy consumed is measured for the system controller, climate or HVAC, and the vehicle accessories. As part of the early phase of the test plan, it is important to develop a test plan and procedure. The necessary hardware required for the test should be installed to observe the battery capacity and SOC...

Definition Of Vrla Battery Capacity

As part of a battery pack configuration, a major problem experienced with the EVs is the premature decline of battery capacity, which ultimately leads to battery failure. The primary cause of the battery pack failure is owing to repeated nonuniform discharging and charging of the cells. Both the battery charging and discharging are highly dependent upon temperature. Owing to the large temperature difference between the coolest battery or batteries on the outer edge of the battery pack, and the hottest battery or batteries on the inner side of the battery pack, there is a corresponding variation in the available battery discharge capacity. Figure 6-2 Variation of battery capacity with respect to discharge temperature. Figure 6-2 Variation of battery capacity with respect to discharge temperature. The battery pack cut-off point is normally determined by a predefined total pack voltage. This pack voltage is with respect to a particular current. As the battery pack undergoes discharge,...

Temperature Sensing of Traction Battery Packs

Figure 4-2 Variation of battery voltage and pressure during charging. is also known as the thermal impedance of the battery varies with construction and cell size. The variation of the battery capacity under different battery profiles is illustrated in Figure 4-3. When measured at the same charge rate, large size cells generate more heat than smaller size cells. This is because heat capacity of a smaller cell is higher than that of the larger cell. For example, a large 3,000 mAh NiMH cell with a volume of 22,500 mm3 has a capacity of 7.5mm3 mAh in comparison to a 350 mAh NiMH cell with a volume of 3,150 mm3 that has a capacity of 9.0mm3 mAh. This is an important design factor to consider when moving from battery packs with lower capacity cells to battery packs with higher capacity cells. Figure 4-3 Variation of battery capacity under different charge profiles. Figure 4-3 Variation of battery capacity under different charge profiles. Figure. 4-5 Battery pack thermistor voltage...

Traction Battery Pack Design

Before commencing battery pack design for EV applications, it is important to understand the behavior of the battery chemistry. It is important to start with the requirements to ensure that the battery design falls within the boundaries of the technology. It is important to determine the maximum discharge rate of the battery in addition to the operating and storage temperature ranges. Consider the cell configuration Pb-acid, NiMH, and Li-ion batteries can be configured in the series or parallel configuration or a combination of the series-parallel combination. The selection of the configuration is based on the requirements for input voltage and battery pack discharge requirements. Battery cells can be configured in series to provide the necessary input voltages. Alternately, battery cells can be configured in parallel to provide the battery capacity to yield the required run time. Battery configuration can be determined based on the two methods. Battery pack electronics includes pack...

The PbAcid Battery

A flooded or wet battery is one that requires maintenance by periodic replenishment of distilled water. The water is added into each cell of the battery through the vent cap. Even today, some large uninterruptible power supply applications use flooded lead-acid batteries as a backup solution. Although they have large service lives of up to 20 years, they have been known to be operational for a longer time (up to 40 years for a Lucent Technologies round cell). The design of flooded lead-acid battery comprises negative plates made of lead (or a lead alloy) sandwiched between positive plates made of lead (or a lead alloy) with calcium or antimony as an additive. The insulator (termed as a separator) is a microporous material that allows the chemical reaction to take place while preventing the electrodes from shorting, owing to contact. Upon charging or application of an electric current, the flooded lead-acid battery undergoes an electrochemical reaction. This creates the cell's...

28 Battery Charging

2.8.1 Battery chargers The issue of charging batteries is of the utmost importance for maintaining batteries in good order and preventing premature failure. We have already seen, for example, how leaving a lead acid battery in a low state of charge can cause permanent damage through the process of sulphation. However, charging them improperly can also very easily damage batteries. Charging a modern vehicle battery is not a simple matter of providing a constant voltage or current through the battery, but requires very careful control of current and voltage. The best approach for the designer is to buy commercial charging equipment from the battery manufacturer or another reputed battery charger manufacturer. When the vehicle is to be charged in different places where correct charging equipment is not available, the option of a modern light onboard charger should be considered. Except in the case of photoelectric panels, the energy for recharging a battery will nearly always come from...

341 Battery Capacity

The amount of free charge generated by the active material at the negative electrode and consumed by the positive electrode is called the battery capacity. The capacity is measured in Ah (1 Ah 3600 C, or coulomb, where 1 C is the charge transferred in 1 s by 1 A current in the MKS unit of charge). The theoretical capacity of a battery (in C) is

1Introduction to Electric Vehicles

Electric vehicles paved their way into public use as early as the middle of the 19th century, even before the introduction of gasoline-powered vehicles.2 In the year 1900, 4200 automobiles were sold, out of which 40 were steam powered, 3 8 were electric powered, and 22 were gasoline powered. However, the invention of the starter motor, improvements in mass production technology of gas-powered vehicles, and inconvenience in battery charging led to the disappearance of the EV in the early 1900s. However, environmental issues and the unpleasant dependence on oil led to the resurgence of interest in EVs in the 1960s. Growth in the enabling technologies added to environmental and economic concerns over the next several decades, increasing the demand for investing in research and development for EVs. Interest and research in EVs soared in the 1990s, with the maj or automobile manufacturers embarking on plans for introducing their own electric or hybrid electric

125 Recent Evs And Hevs

All of the major automotive manufacturers have production EVs, many of which are available for sale or lease to the general public. The status of these vehicle programs changes rapidly, with manufacturers suspending production frequently due to the small existing market demand of such vehicles. Examples of production EVs which are or until recently have been available are GM EVl, Ford Think City, Toyota RAV4, Nissan Hypermini, and Peugeot 106 Electric. There are also many prototype and experimental EVs being developed by the maj or automotive manufacturers. Most of these vehicles use AC induction motors or PM synchronous motors. Also, interestingly, almost all of these vehicles use battery technology other than the lead-acid battery pack. The list of EVs in production and under development is extensive, and readers are referred to the literature3'4 for the details of many of these vehicles.

15 Electrochemical Applications

A unit involving an anode and a cathode is called a galvanic cell. A battery consists of a number of galvanic cells connected in series, so that the battery voltage is the sum of the voltages of the individual cells. An example of a battery is the lead storage battery used in cars. Lead (Pb) is the anode, while lead dioxide (PbO2, in the form of a coating on the lead) is the cathode. Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is the electrolyte. The oxidation reaction (anode reaction) is

Wind Turbine Concept In Civil Engineering

Windmills have been used for at least 3000 years, mainly for grinding grain or pumping water, while in sailing ships the wind has been an essential source of power for even longer. From as early as the thirteenth century, horizontal-axis windmills were an integral part of the rural economy and only fell into disuse with the advent of cheap fossil-fuelled engines and then the spread of rural electrification. The use of windmills (or wind turbines) to generate electricity can be traced back to the late nineteenth century with the 12 kW DC windmill generator constructed by Brush in the USA and the research undertaken by LaCour in Denmark. However, for much of the twentieth century there was little interest in using wind energy other than for battery charging for remote dwellings and these low-power systems were quickly replaced once access to the electricity grid became available. One notable exception was the 1250 kW Smith-Putnam wind turbine constructed in the USA in 1941. This...

12 Developments Towards the End of the 20th Century

During the latter part of the 20th century there have been changes which may make the electric vehicle a more attractive proposition. Firstly there are increasing concerns about the environment, both in terms of overall emissions of carbon dioxide and also the local emission of exhaust fumes which help make crowded towns and cities unpleasant to live in. Secondly there have been technical developments in vehicle design and improvements to rechargeable batteries, motors and controllers. In addition batteries which can be refueled and fuel cells, first invented by William Grove in 1840, have been developed to the point where they are being used in electric vehicles. Of the technical developments, the battery is an area where there have been improvements, although these have not been as great as many people would have wished. Commercially available batteries such nickel cadmium or nickel metal hydride can carry at best about double the energy of lead acid batteries, and the high...

Structural Design and Functions of Carbon Materials by Alloying in Atomic and Molecular Scales

Heteroatoms are inserted into carbon materials in order to improve their electrical, thermal, mechanical and chemical properties. The carbon alloy is studied extensively in one form or another in a variety of physical and chemical systems. In many of these applications, carbon materials are exposed to a wide range of operating conditions, such as concentrated additives to the host carbon materials, to superconductive materials, to anti-oxidant additives, to graphitization catalysts, and to improvements to the charge-discharge capacities of Li-ion rechargeable batteries. The concept of carbon alloys is used for almost all host carbons such as graphites, disordered carbons, carbon nanotubes and nanofibers, fullerenes, carbon fibers, activated carbons and carbon-carbon composites. In this chapter, the concept is focused at molecular and atomic levels as shown in Fig. 1. Carbon alloys, with structures designed on an atomic scale, provide modified atomic structures and modified resultant...

Choice Of A Battery Type For Electric Vehicles

While evaluating battery suitability for unique applications, it is important to understand a variety of battery characteristics, including the energy power relationship (Ragone Plot), battery and cell impedance as a function of temperature, pulse discharge capability as a function of both temperature and load, and battery charge discharge characteristics. ELECTRIC VEHICLE BATTERIES Figure 1-1 Life cycle of a Li-ion EV cell. Battery Capacity 5 hours C 5 Ahr 65

15 Electric vehicle drives optimum solutions for motors drives and batteries

In comparison, sister company Nelco have available a sealed lead-acid battery of 12 V, 60 Ah and arranged into 18 cells to give 108 V. It occupies 720 square inches of plan area and weighs 697 lb. This arrangement can also provide 75 A for 75 minutes. The problem area is cost. This battery cost 2700 in 1991. If the vo1tage was increased to 312 V, with the same stored energy, the cost rises by 20 at 45 kW. Such 300 V battery systems require great attention to safety 100 V batteries may be feasible at 45 kW but this ceases to be true at 150 kW. In fact, one can draw the graph in Fig. 1.23(a) to define minimum voltage for a given output power. Other areas worthy of comment are maintenance and battery life. High voltage strings of aqueous batteries are dangerous and should be banned by legislation. This is not so of sealed lead-acid batteries as there is no need for maintenance access. However, no voltage greater that 110 V should be present in a single string or an individual connector....

566 Bradshawenvirovan

DC drive is used on the higher payload capacity purpose-built Bradshaw Envirovan. Figure 5.22 shows the Envirovan built in conjunction with US collaborator Taylor-Dunn. This can carry 1500 lb on a 3.55 square metre platform at speeds up to 32.5 mph and is aimed specifically at city deliveries. The vehicle relies on 12 6 volt deep-cycle, rechargeable lead-acid batteries for a total of 72 V. All accessories, such as internal lights, windscreen wipers, and gauges, run off the 72 V system through a DC DC converter, which steps the power down to 12 V, so that all batteries discharge equally. This distributes power requirements evenly across all 12 batteries and prevents one or two of the batteries from draining prematurely. A battery warning indicator shows the current percentage of battery power available, with a visual warning when battery charge is below 20 . An on-board battery charger, featured on the Envirovan, can be used to recharge the battery packs simply by plugging it into any...

53 Battery car conversion technology

For OEM conversions of production petrol-engined vehicles the decades up to the 1970s, and up to the present day for aftermarket conversions, is typified by that used by many members of the UK Battery Vehicle Society and documented by Prigmore et al4. Such conversions rely on basic lead-acid batteries available at motor factors for replacement starter batteries. A ton of such batteries, at traction power loading of10-15 kW ton, stores little more than 20 kWh. Affordable motors and transmissions for this market sector have some 70 efficiency, to give only 14 kWh available at the wheels. shown but the torque for a given armature current is, of course, reduced, see (b). The efficiency of the motor is low at low speeds, in overcoming armature inertia, and again at high speeds as heating of the windings absorbs input power. Motors can thus be more highly rated by the provision of cooling fans. Average power in service should in general be arranged at 0.8 of the rated power and the...

652 Cngelectric Hybrid

Drive elements meant that considerable gains could be obtained in packaging the vehicle occupants. Using high power-density permanent-magnet motors driving the rear wheels allowed a particularly low floor of 12 in (305 mm) from the ground. The CNG-engine generator provided steady state power and was augmented by storage batteries drive elements meant that considerable gains could be obtained in packaging the vehicle occupants. Using high power-density permanent-magnet motors driving the rear wheels allowed a particularly low floor of 12 in (305 mm) from the ground. The CNG-engine generator provided steady state power and was augmented by storage batteries The view at (b) shows the power flow charts for different modes of operation. In the first, on IC engine power only, a speed of 37 mph was achieved. On IC engine and battery power, higher speeds were possible and a reserve was available for gradients and acceleration in the final mode of regenerative braking with the IC engine...

The Fast Charging Process

The fast charging technique for traction batteries account for the battery charge acceptance. The charger adjusts the charge rate continually to match the ability of the battery to accept the charge. Danger from excessive overcharging can be avoided, and the battery modules can arrive at the charge in 20 to 30 minutes. This fast charge also enhances the battery life and provides higher battery efficiency (charge recovery). A high-rate discharge of the battery does not cause a catastrophic failure. The battery voltage collapses, and the battery current to the load ceases. A high-rate charge on the other hand can result in serious battery damage. Thus making it important to know when to stop and how to stop. A fully discharged battery in a 0 SOC can accept current at the highest, initial charge rate. A fully charged battery at 100 SOC cannot be charged any further. Thus passing additional charge current through As the battery charging progresses towards a fully charged state, there are...

7Power Electronics and Motor Drives

The electric motor drive converts the stiff DC battery voltage to a DC (for DC motor) or an AC (for AC motor) voltage with a root mean square (RMS) value and frequency that can be adjusted according to the control command. The driver input command is translated into a torque command for the motor drive. The torque command, in conjunction with the feedback signals from sensors, sets the operating point parameters for the electric motor and accordingly controls the turn-on and turn-off of the power switches inside the drive system. The motor drive then delivers power at the desired voltage and frequency to the motor, which in turn delivers the desired torque and speed for propulsion.

Practical Stateof Charge Calculation

Estimate the battery voltage ratio by interpolating the battery SOC with respect to Voc (open circuit voltage). Find the voltage ratio corresponding to the current SOC and multiplying the result by the rated voltage. Calculate the average voltage for the time interval by the average voltage (Vave). The average battery voltage Vave is expressed as Adjust the battery voltage using the equation V - Vavg - (I x Ravg) Estimate the new SOC using the equation

The Fast Charger Configuration

102 ELECTRIC VEHICLE BATTERY FAST CHARGING Figure 5-3 Constant voltage charging profile. The modified battery charge profile of maximum voltage-maximum power-maximum current limits the power to 120kW, while the maximum current and the maximum voltage characteristics remain the same as the maximum voltage-maximum current envelope, as shown in Figure 5-4. Using this new charge envelope, the compact size EV will require 10 to 12 minutes to charge. The maximum voltage-maximum powermaximum current profile characteristic has the advantages of (a) lower peak power (which dictates that the size of the battery grid) and (b) spread of charging times, among EVs can be narrowed down in spite of different battery voltages and battery capacities. The charger is designed essentially to deliver the same amount of energy in the same time. The fast charger requires intimate knowledge of the battery on charge. The battery charger requires knowledge about battery pack, and the faster the charger, the...

372vehicle Dynamics And Motor Design

This illustrates that when the field current is strengthened in the constant power region, the armature voltage can be made to exceed the battery voltage and regenerative braking will take place. Below 1250 rpm plug braking must be used however, the energy stored at this speed is small.

374 Switching Strategy Single Quadrant Fig 315

Figure 3.15(a) shows the arrangement for a 216 V, 45 kW shunt field machine with separate choppers for field and armature. There are some disadvantages with this scheme (a) field is energized when not needed (b) forcing factor of field is small - for a 45 kW shunt field, R 7 ohm, I 10 A nominal, L 1.2 henries, t 0.17 seconds (c) when extended to multi-quadrant design two bridge chopper systems are needed if contactor switching is to be avoided (d) extensive modifications are needed to provide for high power sine wave battery charging (e) field power losses are significant (3 kW at max field). Figure 3.15(a) shows the arrangement for a 216 V, 45 kW shunt field machine with separate choppers for field and armature. There are some disadvantages with this scheme (a) field is energized when not needed (b) forcing factor of field is small - for a 45 kW shunt field, R 7 ohm, I 10 A nominal, L 1.2 henries, t 0.17 seconds (c) when extended to multi-quadrant design two bridge chopper systems...

62 DC Regulation and Voltage Conversion

The voltage from all sources of electrical power varies with time, temperature, and many other factors, especially current. Fuel cells, for example, are particularly badly regulated, and it will always be necessary to control the output voltage so that its only varies between set boundaries. Battery voltage is actually quite well regulated, but frequently we will want to change the voltage to a lower or higher value, usually to control the speed of a motor. We saw in the last section that if an electric motor is to be used in regenerative braking we need to be able to boost the voltage (and reduce the current) in a continuously variable way.

35 Technical Characteristics

The battery in its simplest form can be represented by an internal voltage E and a series resistance R, as shown in Figure 3.10a. The internal voltage appears at the battery terminals as open circuit voltage when there is no load connected to the battery. The internal voltage or the open circuit voltage depends on the state of charge of the battery, temperature, and past discharge charge history (memory effects), among other factors. The open circuit voltage characteristics are shown in Figure 3.10b. As the battery is gradually discharged, the internal voltage decreases, while the internal resistance increases. The open circuit voltage characteristics have a fairly extended plateau of linear characteristics, with a slope close to zero. The open circuit voltage is a good indicator of the state of discharge. Once the battery reaches 100 DoD, the open circuit voltage decreases sharply with more discharge. The battery terminal voltage (Figure 3.11) is the voltage available at the...

24 Nickelbased batteries

The nickel cadmium battery was considered to be one of the main competitors to the lead acid battery for use in electric vehicles and these batteries have nearly twice the specific energy of lead acid batteries. Nickel cadmium batteries have been widely used in many appliances, including use in electric vehicles. The NiCad battery has advantages of high specific power, a long life cycle (up to 2500 cycles), a wide range of operating temperatures from 40 C to +80 C, a low self-discharge and good long term storage. This is because the battery is a very stable system, with equivalent reactions to the self-discharge of the lead acid battery (equations (2.4) and (2.5)) only taking place very slowly. The NiCad batteries can be purchased in a range of sizes and shapes, though they are not easy to obtain in the larger sizes required for electric vehicles, their main market being portable tools and electronic equipment. They are also very robust both mechanically and electrically and can be...

521 Advanced Leadacid

The lead-acid battery is attractive for its comparatively low cost and an existing infrastructure for charging, servicing and recyclable disposal. A number of special high energy versions have been devised such as that shown at (b), due to researchers at the University of Idaho. This battery module has three cells, each having a stack of double-lugged plates separated by microporous glass mats. High specific power is obtained by using narrow plates with dual current collecting lugs and a 1 4 height to width aspect ratio. Grid resistance is thus reduced by shortening conductor lengths and specific energy is improved by plates that are thinner than conventional ones. They have higher active mass utilization at discharge rates appropriate to EV use. At an operating temperature of 110oF specific energy was 35.4 Wh kg and specific power 200 W kg. Over 600 discharge cycles were performed in tests without any serious deterioration in performance. The table at (c) lists the main parameters of...

636 Taxi Hybrid Drive

Based on a Range Rover, an EC project involving Rover, gas turbine makers OPRA, Athens Technical University, Hawker Batteries and Renault was carried out at Imperial College so as to provide a hybrid powertrain for a European taxi, Fig. 6.10, and in particular the development of a turbogenerator. A system involving a gas turbine and high speed generator together with a small battery pack for power storage and zero-emission city driving in a series configuration has been proposed by the EC and the turbogenerator work is reported by Pullen and Etemad 5, (a). (b) with only 5 kW being sufficient to drive the vehicle at a speed of 60 km h, generally above the average vehicle speed for European cities. However, large, short duration power demands must be met to provide sufficient acceleration. Since the rate of energy consumption is low in the urban regime, this energy can be provided by means of a lead-acid battery and give an acceptable range of 50-70 km. Such a battery must, however, be...

251 Hybrid Electric Drive

Figure 2.20 illustrates a parallel hybrid driveline using a Wankel engine and a brushless DC Motor. The package can produce 70 kW peak power and 20 kW average. This combination provides excellent acceleration using energy stored in a small flat plate lead-acid battery. Tests to date show this battery still delivers 100 peak power of 45 kW and 80 capacity after 22 000 cycles to 30 depth of discharge. Thermal management is vital to achieving these figures.

Fast Charging Strategies

End-of-charge and ensures safe, efficient recharge without significant gas generation. It is assumed that the battery has been subjected to a deep discharge, or heavily sulphated, owing to a high initial resistance in comparison to a fully charged lead-acid battery. Under these conditions, the initial charging current will be less than the current limit set because a substantial portion of the applied overvoltage (Vapp) will appear as ohmic drop, IR, and relatively little will be available to drive the electrochemical conversion reactions. The voltage will rapidly rise from the initial open-circuit voltage (OCV). If IR is sufficiently large, VAPP (lower VAPP curve) will quickly reach the low value of limiting voltage chosen, VL, and the current will continue to rise until it reaches the selected current limit. At constant current, the applied voltage may fall and pass through a minimum limit depending on the value of ILIMIT and whether the resistance is still decreasing. When nonohmic...

3Energy Source Battery

Battery technology has been undergoing extensive research and development efforts over the past 3 0 years, yet there is currently no battery that can deliver an acceptable combination of power, energy, and life cycle for high-volume production vehicles. The small number of EVs and HEVs that were introduced in the market used batteries that were too expensive and have short calendar life, making the batteries the biggest impediment in commercializing EVs and HEVs. Lead-acid battery

633 Rotary Engine With Pm Motor The Mechanical Outlines

A key benefit of the PM brushless DC motor is the wide band constant-power curve. Consequently there is no need for gear changing for high-torque operation, and the motor gives high efficiency and low rotor heating both on the flat and in hilly terrain. The motor inverter and battery are oil cooled to ensure compact dimensions. The battery uses lead tinfoil plates to achieve low internal resistance and is thermally managed to ensure charge equalization in the cells. A chopper is used to give a stabilized 300 V DC link. The outstanding feature of the lead-acid battery is the peak power capability of 50 kW for 2 minutes in a weight of 170 kg, Fig. 6.7(a).

29 The Designers Choice of Battery

This could result in a smaller and cheaper battery unit than, for instance, if a lead acid battery were used. It would therefore come into its own for hybrid vehicles or vehicles such as a commuter bus or tram that stop frequently and could therefore be charged when stopped.

62 Hybriddrive prospects

A neat description of the problems of hybrid-drive vehicles has come out of the results of the 3 year HYZEM research programme undertaken by European manufacturers, Fig. 6.2. According to Rover participants1, controlled comparisons of different hybrid-drive configurations, using verified simulation tools, are able to highlight the profitable fields of development needed to arrive at a fully competitive hybrid-drive vehicle and demonstrate, in quantitative terms, the tradeoff between emissions, electrical energy and fuel consumption. Only two standard test points are required to describe the almost linear relationship fuel consumption at point of no overall change in battery state-of-charge (SOC) and point of electrical consumption over the same cycle in pure electric mode. A linear characteristic representing an ideal lossless battery can also be added to the graph, to show the potential for battery development, as at (a).

651 Hybriddrive Buses

This was the thinking behind the choice of a series system by Fiat in their pioneering hybrid bus, Fig. 6.17, a flow diagram for the system being shown at (a). The DC compound motor used, with separately excited field, had interpoles and compensating windings to expand the load range of maximum efficiency operation both as a motor and generator. Armature current was varied, by means of a thyristor chopper, from zero to base speed, above which field current was varied by an independent chopper. The reversible chopper allowed regenerative braking, down to zero speed. The motor had characteristics as seen at (b) and was direct coupled to the rear-axle driving head. Its nominal voltage was 600 V, continuous power 90 kW, maximum power 180 kW and field control ratio at continuous power 1150 3200 rpm. Efficiency at continuous power in field control was over 90 . The 600 V generating unit comprised a diesel generator set with power rating of 56 kW and maximum power 78 kW. Battery storage...

563 Uk Eva Practice For

In its manual of good practice for battery electric vehicles the Electric Vehicle Association lays down some useful ground rules for conceptual design of road-going electric trucks. Exploiting the obvious benefits of EV technology is the first consideration. Thus an ultra-low floor walk-through cab is a real possibility when batteries and motors can be mounted remotely. Lack of fuelling requirement, ease of start-up and getaway - also driving simplicity of two-pedal control without gearshifting - all these factors lend themselves to operations, such as busy city-centre deliveries where a substantial part of the driver's time is spent in off-loading and order-taking. Any aspect of vehicle design which minimizes the driving task thus maximizes his or her other workload duties. Successful builders of electric trucks are thus, say the EVA, specialists in assembling bought-in systems and components. Required expertise is in tailoring a motor battery speed-controller package to a given...

Battery Test Recommendations

Based on the conclusions (a) Peak power capability of the battery pack degrades more rapidly with cycle life than does the three-hour constant-current capacity. This peak power degradation determines the useful life under driving profile conditions. Consequently, the useful life with driving profiles that have a high peak power demand is much less than the life with profiles having a low peak power requirement. (b) Rest periods of up to eight hours between discharge and charge has little effect on battery life. (c) The three-step constant current (CI1 CI2 CI3) charge method produces a lower temperature rise but does not yield increased cycle life over the constant-current, constant voltage (CI CV) charge method recommended by the battery manufacturer. (d) Cooling of sealed starved-electrolyte lead-acid batteries is more difficult than for flooded-electrolyte batteries, particularly in those designs where the electrode battery assembly is not in contact with the battery casing walls....

532 Motor Control Alternatives

The behaviour of lead-acid batteries, (b), is such that in the discharged condition lead sulphate is the active material for both cell-plates which stand in dilute sulphuric acid at 1.1 specific gravity. During charging the positive plate material is converted to lead peroxide while that of the negative plate is converted into lead, as seen at (c). The sulphuric acid becomes more concentrated in the process and rises to SG 1.5 when fully charged, the cells then developing over 2 volts. In discharge the acid is diluted by the reverse process. While thin plates with large surface area are Fig. 5.10 Motor control and battery (a) chopper circuit (b) battery chargedischarge cycle (c) cell arrangement (d) battery time-of-discharge curves. Fig. 5.10 Motor control and battery (a) chopper circuit (b) battery chargedischarge cycle (c) cell arrangement (d) battery time-of-discharge curves. intended for batteries with high discharge rates, such as starter batteries, the expansion process of the...

554 Ford Eka Lithiumionbatterypower

Until now Li-ion batteries have been used mainly in small consumer electronic products like notebook computers, cellular phones, baby monitors and smoke detectors. Output per cell of 3.6 volts is some three times that of nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal-hydride that they widely replace. They also retain full charge regardless of usage, can be recharged from zero to full capacity in 6 house with over 3000 repeated charge discharge cycles, and are immune from the so-called 'memory effect' suffered by Ni-Cads. The basic Li-ion chemistry was initially redeveloped for automotive use by the French company SAFT SA, a leading battery manufacturer. Their advanced technology was then adapted to the e-Ka by Ford's Research Centre in Aachen, Germany, with financial assistance for the project from the German Ministry for Education and Research. The battery pack consists of 180 cells with 28 kWh rating and weighs only 280 kg (615 lb). This is 30 the weight of the power equivalent in lead-acid...

The BPMS Charge Indicator

The battery charge indicator or fuel gauge should provide the actual battery capacity and nominal battery capacity readings. This indication is represented as This condition should not be capable of being bypassed without a reset and disengagement of the battery pack from the traction controller module. The available energy or capacity of fully formed traction battery can be divided into three portions. The first portion of the capacity is the energy that can be restored or replenished by charging. The second portion of the traction battery energy is the available energy under the present conditions of SOC, discharge, and temperature. The third portion of the traction battery energy is the unusable energy owing to crystalline oxide formation, also known as memory. Both VRLA and NiMH batteries exhibit this memory effect. While the SOC indicator or fuel gauge is useful, the gauge is reset to 100 each time the battery pack is recharged. The gauge shows a 100 each time regardless of the...

10321 Rated Vehicle Velocity

The road load characteristics developed in Chapter 2 and the force-velocity characteristics of the IC engine (derived from the torque-speed characteristics such as shown in Figure 10.7 or 10.9) are useful in sizing the IC engine. Figure 10.11 shows example curves of IC engine characteristics with engine displacement as a parameter, along with the road load characteristics for an assumed grade and vehicle parameters. The correct IC engine size is determined from the intersection of the worst-case road load characteristics with the IC engine force-velocity profile at rated velocity, plus allowing a nominal 10 margin for battery pack recharging.2 The exact amount of margin needed is the subject of a more complicated analysis, involving vehicle driving cycles, battery capacity, battery charge and discharge characteristics, and generator characteristics.

Limitations of Fast Charging

Similarly, a traction battery best designed to deliver its total energy over a period of one or two hours will need one or two hours to achieve a full charge. In case of an internal combustion engine refuelling, the filling tube and the flow control represents a constant rate restriction. While recharging the traction battery may be performed at a fast rate, the process is completed without abuse as a variable rate process. As the charging of the battery pack progresses, the ability of the battery pack to accept the charge at the same rate diminishes and tends towards zero. Thus it becomes more and more difficult to convert the applied charge current to stored electrochemical energy. Thus the last 5 to 10 of charge and discharge takes the longest time as shown in Figure 5-5. It is possible to force the charge current through the battery pack at a higher rate, exceeding the battery pack charge acceptance specifications. However, this does not result in faster...

Effect of Temperature

As mentioned earlier, the available discharge capacity of a NiMH battery is affected significantly under low cell temperature discharge conditions. As shown in Figure 6-8, the battery capacity increases by almost 50 under the same discharge rate for an increase of 10 C temperature until the battery reaches 20 to 25 C.

Effects of Temperature on NiMH Battery Formation

NiMH batteries are designed to withstand overcharge to maximize battery capacity and simplify charge control systems. During a battery overcharge, the negative electrode is particularly susceptible to corrosion owing to oxygen evolved at the Ni positive electrode. The oxygen is evolved during chemical recombination at the MH electrode.

The Thermal and Electrochemical Coupled Model

Temperature is one factor that affects the battery performance, life, and reliability of operation. Battery physiochemical properties are greatly strong functions of temperature. The equilibrium pressure of hydrogen absorption-desorption, affects the open-circuit potential of the metal hydride electrode and hence the NiMH. Battery capacity losses occur at low temperatures due to high internal resistance and at high temperatures due to rapid self-discharge. Thus making the operating temperature range essential for a battery pack to achieve optimal performance. Battery life can be improved by balanced utilization of active materials, which requires a highly uniform temperature profile inside the battery to avoid the localized degradation. The battery temperature may increase due to self-accelerating characteristics of exothermic reactions resulting in the evolution of oxygen eventually leading to a thermal runaway. In order for the battery pack to operate optimally, it is essential to...

Charging Methods For Nimh Batteries

Charging is the process of restoring a discharged battery to its original rated capacity. In order to be able to provide useful energy, the battery The second charge method utilizes a fast charge one step constant current rate allowing the cells to recharge to 40 of their capacity from 20 to 40 initial state of charge. The battery packs are typically charged for 10 to 20 hours at over 0.5C A but less than 1C A and temperature ranging from room temperature to 55 C. As charging the batteries at a current in excess of 1C A causes internal cell pressure to increase resulting in the safety vent to be activated. This results in the electrolyte leakage. When the temperature of the batteries is under or over the commencement of the charge, rapid charge is terminated, and trickle charge is initiated. Allowing high current to flow to excessively discharged or deep discharged batteries during the charge results in the formation of an electrode barrier that makes is difficult to restore the...

Fast Charging and Battery Degradation

In the event of infrequent charging, traction batteries need a rapid battery charging capability. Rapid charging implies a rapid reverse electrochemical reaction that depends on both battery chemistry and geometry. A high current induces a quick charging reaction, which in turn results in reducing the battery efficiency of the charging process and creates overheating. Maintaining a high charging current can also result in irreversible degradation of the battery due to electrolyte leakage and crystalline dendrite formation. During the discharge process, current flowing from the battery is determined by the rate of charge transfer resulting from the reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions at the battery cell plates. This rate of reaction is constrained by the amount of electrolyte that is in contact with the electrode. During the charging process, the level of current flowing into the battery is controlled by the electrical battery charging system and may be in excess of the natural redox...

Impact of Charge Method on Battery Cycle Life

The battery charge methods (a) constant current-constant voltage (CI CV) with temperature compensated constant voltage and (b) three-step constant current (CI1 CI2 CI3) with charge transitions at specific levels of the recharge factor, are tested before the battery reaches its end-of-life (end-of-discharge voltage).

Fast Charging and Battery Overcharge

A fast battery is measured by exhibiting a low internal resistance. Thus a small amount of charge overvoltage is needed to acquire a substantial charge rate C. Both the electrochemical component of the overvoltage and the electrical component must be sufficiently low to allow fast charging while generating only a small amount of heat. In other words the battery can be driven into the charge and or discharge reaction easily, and the resistance of the conductors and the interfacial contacts can be easily overcome. Thus overcharging of the fast battery during fast charging should be avoided. A large amount of irreversible heat generated in the process will cause permanent battery damage or destroy the battery pack in a very short duration. During the fast charging process of a 90 Ahr battery, the charging proceeds at a rate of 5 to 8C (450 to 720A) under charger limited conditions. During the application of this charge the battery receives the first 50 of its charge during the initial 10...

Effects Of Excessive Heat On Battery Cycle Life

Applying a general rule of thumb under high charge rates, the life of a traction battery is reduced by half for every increase in the cell temperature. Thus the temperature-time integral affects battery life with the worst case being subject to high temperatures for an extended period of time. The effects of excessive battery charging, as illustrated in Figure 2-4, lead to void formations, significant gassing of the electrolyte, and electrode overheating, which in turn leads to oxidation of the cathode. Similar to detrimental factors associated with excessive battery charging, inadequate battery charging leads to sulfation (sulfate formation) at the electrodes, which in turn leads to reduction in battery charge capacity as illustrated in Figure 2-5. The reduction in the charge capacity in turn leads to gassing of the electrolyte. This is due to the inability of conversion of the charge into useful energy at the electrode.

210 Use of Batteries in Hybrid Vehicles

There are many combinations of batteries, engines and mechanical flywheels which allow optimisation of electric vehicles. The best known is the combination of IC engine and rechargeable battery, but more than one type of battery can be used in combination, and the use of batteries and flywheels can have advantages. This type of hybrid electric vehicle, IC engine with battery, is by the most common, and is likely to be the most important type of electric car in the near and even medium term. It seems that the majority of such vehicles currently use nickel metal hydride batteries, with a storage capacity typically between about 2 and 5 kWh. (Note that the energy stored in a normal car battery is between about 0.3 and 1.0 kWh.)

96Wing Mirrors Aerials and Luggage Racks

Luggage racks are a more difficult subject, as they may sometimes be needed. Their use will considerably reduce the range of rechargeable battery vehicles. The more aerodynamic the vehicle, the larger will be the percentage reduction in range. It may be better to design battery vehicles so that they do not have the option of any luggage rack or external fitting.

Pollutionprevention Hierarchy

Recycling (or reuse) refers to the use (or reuse) of materials that would otherwise be disposed of or treated as a waste product. A good example is a rechargeable battery. Wastes that cannot be directly reused may often be recovered on-site through methods such as distillation. When on-site recovery or reuse is not feasible due to quality specifications or the inability to perform recovery on-site, off-site recovery at a permitted commercial recovery facility is often a possibility. Such management techniques are considered secondary to source reduction and should only be used when pollution cannot be prevented.

105 Alternative and Sustainable Energy Used via the Grid

Although most electricity is currently obtained from burning fossil fuels at power stations, there is a positive effort being made to introduce alternative sustainable forms of energy. These could be used to provide electricity for rechargeable battery cars and also to provide and process fuels for metal air batteries and fuel cells.

Smart Battery and BPMS Diagnostics Control

A smart battery removes the charge control from the battery charger and assigns it to the battery. With the intelligent high speed data (HSD) bus, the battery becomes the master, and the charger behaves as the slave that follows the battery. This approach eliminates the recalibration and configuration of the charger with new charging data profiles based on manufacturer, new old battery chemistry, and compatibility. Charging of a battery with minimal built-in intelligence is quite analogous to an infant being fed by its mother. The reaction of the infant during feeding determines whether or not the mother provides additional food. On the contrary, the intelligent battery can inform the charger as to how much additional charge or discharge is required to maintain optimal performance of the traction battery. The battery diagnostics information is transmitted using the smart HSD bus. The diagnostics battery pack information sent to the BMONs includes battery type, serial number,...

Bpms Thermal Management System

The operating conditions of the vehicle batteries consist of variable environmental conditions and variable electric power demands. Chemical processes in the battery are temperature dependent. Therefore, the electrochemical storage system will have to be kept within certain temperature limits in order to maintain a proper function and also to ensure a reasonable battery life. The temperature limits for the battery are considered to be 10 C as the lower limit due to decreasing battery capacity and 50 C as the upper limit due to positive plate corrosion and separator decomposition. From the battery thermal management standpoint, it is necessary to maintain a uniform temperature within the battery pack. The thermal management system will provide either heating or cooling action depending upon the battery pack conditions. Tests conducted in the laboratory and with EV urban driving suggest that using a thermal management system improves the mileage and battery life by at least 20 . Thermal...

378power Diagram For Motoring And Charging

Figure 3.18 presents the combined circuit diagram for motoring and battery charging. Reservoir capacitors and mode contactors have been added. The capacitors function as snubbers when running in motoring mode. As drawn, to adapt to battery charging, the battery plug is moved to outlet D and the mains inserted into plug B, alternatively contactors could be used to do the job. Battery safety precautions comprise (1) the battery is connected via a circuit breaker capable of interrupting the full short-circuit current of a charged battery (2) this circuit breaker is to contain a trip to disconnect battery by mechanical means only (3) battery motor controller are each to contain 'firewire' to disconnect the circuit breaker (4) circuit breaker is to be tripped by 'G' switch when 6G is exceeded in any axis.

The Bpms Charging Control

Specialized integrated circuits, available today, have been designed for developing a control scheme for optimization of battery charging. The circuits operate a general assumption that the battery cells share uniform charge and discharge characteristics thus limiting the treatment of the battery as a two-terminal energy storage element.

422 Basic Design for Photovoltaic Systems

Examples of off-grid PV applications include water pumping for potable water supply and irrigation, power for stand alone homes, street lighting, battery charging, telephone and radio communication relay stations, weather stations, etc. Additional examples include electrical utility switching stations, peak electrical utility power where environmental quality is a concern, data acquisition systems, and critical load such as ventilation fans, vaccine refrigeration, etc.

371 Motor Drives Why Change The System

Because the system is already subject to change brought about by new requirements and developments. First, we have the introduction of sealed battery systems. These will permit much higher peak powers than hitherto possible and consequently will run at high voltages. 216 V DC is a common standard working with 600 V power semiconductors. Second, we have the introduction of hybrid vehicles. This will result in the need for drives and motors to operate for long sustained periods - previously batteries did not store enough energy. Third, the DC series motor has the right shape of torque-speed curve for traction, constant power over a wide speed range. Fourth, DC series field windings make much better use of the field window than high voltage shunt windings where much of the window is occupied by insulation. The series field winding is a splendid inductor for use in battery charging mode. Losses in series mode are significantly reduced.

Depolarization as a Process to Enhance Charging

Battery charging relies on the principle of moving ions from a positive plate to a negative plate. It is the efficiency of the ion movement over In order to avoid this, the charger delivers a 2.5 A charging pulse to each battery for approximately 500 msec. The BMON controls the charge pulse to individual batteries in the battery pack. As a result of the charging pulse, ions start to build up at a fast rate, limiting the charge acceptance of the battery. In order to avoid the limiting of the charge acceptance, a negative 11A pulse is applied for a shorter duration (typically 2 msec). The duration and frequency of the pulses are varied to effectively rebalance the cell's ion concentration. This improves charge acceptance and permits a more efficient charging process. As the battery charging progresses, the BMON monitors the battery current, voltage, and temperature. The BMON, which includes the analog to digital converters and the switched mode power supply, determines the battery...

Battery Cycle Life Versus Peak Power And Rest Period

Differences in the peak power demand may be due to different driving characteristics of the driver or also from the difference in EV design. From the EV design standpoint, one vehicle may be a direct traction drive while the other may incorporate a transmission drive. Also selection of the battery pack rest period can be based on the convenience or on reduced battery charging station tariffs to take advantage of the off-peak charging.

97 Electric Vehicle Recharging and Refuelling Systems

Clearly there is no use in introducing electric vehicles without introducing recharging systems for battery vehicles and refueling systems for fuel cell vehicles. The topic of battery charging was covered in Section 2.8 in the chapter on batteries. The problem of battery chargers is one that fuel cell and hybrid electric vehicles do not have at all. However, the problem of supplying fuel to fuel cells is no less complex, and so we devoted the whole of Chapter 5 to this problem. On the other hand, the great majority of hybrid vehicles use the IC engine to recharge the battery, and so simply fill up with gasoline or diesel.

523 Nickelmetal Hydride

Fixed sites and allows battery charging and changing to be carried out by the bus driver in a few minutes. The mobile station is based on a demountable container which can be unloaded by a conventional truck. Trials have shown that a bus covering a daily total distance of 75 miles on a three-mile-long route needs to stop at the station after eight journeys. Discharged batteries are changed semiautomatically on roller-belt arms, by a hand-held console.

441 Alternating and direct currents 4411 Alternating current

DC will be found in industry in the form of battery supplies for electrically powered works plant, such as fork lift trucks, together with associated battery charging equipment. Otherwise, dc, obtained by rectification of the mains ac supply, will be encountered only for specialist applications, e.g. electroplating.

621 Mapcontrolled Drive Management

To implement the driving modes of either hybrid, electric or IC engine the operating strategy is broken down into tasks processed parallel to one another by the CPU, to control and monitor engine, motor, battery and electric clutch. The mode task determines which traction condition is appropriate, balancing the inputs from the power sources the performance output task controls power flow within the total system the battery task controls battery charging. According to accelerator braking pedal inputs, the monitoring unit transfers the power target required by the driver to the CPU where the optimal operating point for both drive units is calculated in a continuous, iterative process. The graphs at (f) give an example of three iterations for charge efficiency, also determined by the CPU, based on current charge level of the battery.

A A Divona A J Dolan J R Hendershot

Useful life without maintenance on the mechanical brushes and commutator, it is still selected for some pump applications when only a dc voltage power source is available. It has been also selected in a limited number of instances where adjustable speed is required. The dc motor, powered by the voltage from storage batteries or from a dc generator, can be speed-adjusted by varying the voltage with a power supply. Its speed relationship to the voltage is linear and very useful for some pump applications such as constant displacement types, which require speed adjustment to set flow. See Subsection 6.2.2.

Availability and Reliability

In a primary battery, the chemically reacting parts require renewal. In a secondary (or storage) battery, the electrochemical processes are reversible to a high degree and the chemically reacting parts are restored, after partial or complete discharge, by reversing the direction of current through the battery. This highly reversible electrolytic action makes storage batteries effective for storing and discharging electrical energy in a highly controlled manner. Limitations of battery use include their relatively low energy density, which dictates large size weight requirements, their efficiency losses, and their high capital cost. However, advances in storage battery materials, driven largely by the perceived strong market potential in electric power applications (for peak shaving and backup power), continue to improve the economic performance of battery use for electric energy storage.

1259 Power System Design

The design of the power system will vary as a function of the type of prime mover, mode of generation, its size in comparison to the grid at the point of connection, and mode of operation among other points of consideration. Recall that the DG unit can operate in either of two modes grid-connected or islanded. A subset of the islanded mode is temporary grid connection to shift load from the grid to the DG unit and vice versa. Not all power generating devices can operate separate from the grid. Static generation systems can operate separate from the grid if the load is held constant and does not have an inrush requirement for starting. Where there is an inrush requirement or varying load, static generation systems employing batteries or other sources of power in parallel with the generation process can be operated separately from the grid. As an example, a photovoltaic system with a storage battery is commonly used in remote locations where grid-supplied power is not available. It is...

114 Distributed Resource Interconnection Considerations 1141 Introduction

For example, pumped hydroelectric facilities can often be considered as distributed energy storage where the return of the stored energy to the network requires the use of water-powered turbines and conventional electric generators. By comparison, a conventional battery bank returns power to the network through a power electronic-based inverter that changes direct current to alternating current. While both are energy storage systems, the protection and control requirements for each will differ greatly.

46 Steps towards the fuelcell engine

Earlier sections of this chapter, contributed by Roger Booth, have dealt with process engineering of the fuel-cell stack. Hereafter the steps leading to the development of viable fuel-cell engines are considered. While hybrid drive vehicles, using conventional battery-electric and thermal-engine power sources, provide improved fuel economy and a viable solution for urban operation, the fuel-cell powered vehicle is now seen as the long-term option. Already it is realized that thermal-engine driven vehicles can never provide the necessary fuel economy and emissions control required by world governments, primarily because the thermal engine is running at 10 of its total power potential for most of its time and there is no known way of eliminating CO2 emissions from it. Over the next 20 years, people using HC vehicles are going to face increasing fuel scarcity, increasing fuel cost and ever increasing restrictions on use and size of vehicles, because of the emissions they produce. The...

Electrochemical Energy Conversion

Galvanic cells in which stored chemicals can be reacted on demand to produce an electric current are termed primary cells. The discharging reaction is irreversible and the contents, once exhausted, must be replaced or the cell discarded. Examples are the dry cells that activate small appliances. In some galvanic cells (called secondary cells), however, the reaction is reversible that is, application of an electrical potential across the electrodes in the opposite direction will restore the reactants to their high-enthalpy state. Examples are rechargeable batteries for household appliances, automobiles, and many industrial applications. Electrolytic cells are the reactors upon which the electrochemical process, electroplating, and electrowinning industries are based.

113 Fuzzylogicbased Rover Health And Safety

Various observable states, events, and terrain features can be considered for online assessment of a rover's operational status. Table 11.1 lists a number of possible health and safety indicators (HSIs) associated with rover on-board subsystems, which convey some aspect(s) of rover operational well being as it relates to safe terrain traversal. At any given moment, the amount of power available to a rover system is perhaps the strongest indicator of its operational health. Solar energy is the primary power source for planetary rovers, although some systems have the luxury of rechargeable batteries. The attitude (pitch and roll) of the vehicle chassis can be monitored in order to avoid instabilities associated with ascent descent of slopes, traversal of rocky terrain, and turning within vehicle curvature constraints. In addition to surface irregularities, the type and condition of the terrain surface provide clues for safety assessment. Human automobile drivers are able to...

83 Punttype structures

The use of large uniform-section box tube for the sills, A C-posts and their upper and lower crossmembers. The use of a sandwich floor panel, with such a punt structure, would also allow central positioning of propulsion-battery packs in a structurally efficient manner for a mid-size electric car. Initial analysis of this type of optimized lightweight structure, simplified for analysis as at (b top right), is best carried out by a method such as Pawlowski's5 Simple Structural Surface (SSS) technique which gives a better feel for structural efficiency than the full finite-element analysis, carried out at a later stage. Pawlowski's contribution was to adopt aeronautical thin-walled structural analysis techniques for automotive structures and his SSS method (nowadays much more readily applied with the assistance of computer simulation) involves dividing the key elements of the structure into systems of plates, assumed to carry shear loads, surrounded at their edges by bars assumed only...

BPMS Charge Protector

In order to ensure maximum life of the battery pack, end-point reliability, and driver safety, VRLA and NiMH battery chemistries require that they be charged and discharged within defined limits. The user can prevent overcharging, undercharging, and discharging by using protection circuits. The first level of battery pack protection is typically provided using an integrated circuit and a series of Field Emission Transistors (FETs). The battery pack voltage and the discharge are closely monitored (at a cell level if necessary). The battery pack is disconnected from the charger in case the voltage or the current falls outside the specified limits. Typically, the primary electronic circuit does not detect every potential fault. Most silicon-based devices do not detect an overcharging current because it is always smaller than the overdischarge current. Instead, the battery overvoltage is monitored. In most cases, the battery overcurrent sensing circuit does not activate as the charger...

The Typical BPMS Configuration

From the energy management interface standpoint, the complete system may consist of a pair of main controllers (MC), one serving in active mode while the other is serving as a hot standby. In addition, up to 30 battery monitors (BMONs) interface to the individual batteries, depending upon the battery pack configuration. Each BMON can monitor up to five 12 V batteries in the battery pack and up to four auxiliary temperature and vent pressure sensors. The BMONs must be galvanically isolated from the traction battery pack. The BMONs are connected in a daisy chain, allowing communication via a high-speed data bus (HSDB). A typical system consists of 2MCs, 7 to 8 BMONs that monitor a battery pack in 12 V increments. The MC incorporates dual-processor architecture to perform all its functions communications, processing and control, data storage, and data retrieval. Historical data of the battery pack is stored throughout the life of the battery system, in a nonvolatile RAM. Recent data for...

Mitigation of Intrinsic Materials Hazards

Using integrated circuits to monitor battery cells may assist with, both electrical and thermal management. In case of the battery pack, the individual battery temperature and current is monitored by using battery monitoring systems (BMONs). As mentioned earlier, intrinsic material hazards increase when VRLA and NiMH batteries are exposed to elevated battery pack temperatures. This can cause hazardous conditions such as exothermic and gas-producing reactions. In an EV, heat from the battery itself, and other components can lead to elevated battery pack temperatures. The thermal management system mitigates the hazards caused by elevated battery pack temperatures. Research trends suggest that thermal runaway with heat sensitive (shut-down) separators will be able to stop electrochemical reactions. Overcharge and overdischarge protection may be achieved through adjusting the battery cell chemistry to minimize the effects of overcharge and overdischarge using protective battery...

Effect of Temperature on Discharge

As seen in Figure 3-9, the battery pack resistance varies with DOD. Under city driving conditions, a 90Ahr NiMH battery resistance drops from 13mW to 12mW as the DOD changes from 0Ahr to 40Ahr. Thus the battery pack is capable of delivering a higher discharge current at 40 Ahr under nominal operating temperature conditions.

Electrical Insulation Breakdown Detection

The breakdown in electrical insulation of the battery pack terminals can lead to a leakage current flow between the high voltage system and the vehicle chassis. A high voltage arc results in a fatal shock. In the event of an insulation breakdown, the detection circuit generates a fault signal trigger to the BMON. This fault signal is generated when the specified threshold of leakage current from high voltage to the battery chassis is detected. Since the high battery pack voltage is floating with respect to the ground, there is no current flowing to the chassis.

Driving Range at the End of Day1 Test

The vehicle driving range test is to determine the maximum driving range achieved at the end of Day-1 during a 12-hour period. During this test period, the battery pack is periodically charged using the rapid charger. The minimum range traversed by the vehicle in an 8-hour inter-

Thermal Performance Test

This test characterizes the effects of ambient temperature variation on the battery pack performance. The characteristics of the battery that are affected are in most cases, technology related. Thus the number and the types of charge and discharge cycles to be performed cannot be generalized for all battery types. The results of this test provide useful data to determine the need for battery thermal management or the allowable temperature range for a battery that may incorporate thermal management at a later stage.

Design Analysis of the Battery Thermal Management System

Air flow at 30 liter sec should be maintained among the battery pack modules if the battery pack has to be independent of the low winter temperature. In order to attain the air flow of 30 liter sec, it is necessary to make additional design changes to improve the air flow. The position of the exhaust opening or openings is not fixed. The analyses shows that concentrating the outlet as far as possible from the intake and placing it at the bottom of the battery pack will provide the most uniform cooling without implying complicated air-guiding arrangements.

Fast Charging and the Electrical Utility

From the electrical utility standpoint, the total energy required during battery pack charging is the same when the vehicles are charged slowly, in parallel, or whether they come in to the charging stations sequentially. However, this charging is done during peak load hours. In the case of home overnight charging, the EVs are consuming energy in the off-peak hours. In some countries, electricity is primarily generated for light duties and for home lighting purposes only. In case extra kilowatts of energy consumption are added at home, the circuit breakers begin to reset and the fuses open. In case the rapid charging is to be successful without battery pack failures, it is important for the batteries to tolerate an initial 15C charge rate providing the battery pack with 90 of the charge in about five minutes.

DIY Battery Repair

DIY Battery Repair

You can now recondition your old batteries at home and bring them back to 100 percent of their working condition. This guide will enable you to revive All NiCd batteries regardless of brand and battery volt. It will give you the required information on how to re-energize and revive your NiCd batteries through the RVD process, charging method and charging guidelines.

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